Frank E. Loy served as Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs from 1998 to 2001. He was responsible for, among other things, US international policy and negotiations regarding the environment, human rights, the promotion of democracy, refugees and humanitarian affairs, counter-narcotics and international law enforcement. During his tenure he served as chief U.S. negotiator for a number of treaties, including those on climate change, on trade in genetically modified agricultural products and on an international convention to combat organized crime. He served in the Department of State in two previous administrations. During 1979-1981 he served as Director of the Bureau of Refugee Programs, with personal rank of Ambassador, and from 1965 to 1970 as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. He spent a number of years in the business sector. He was a founder and partner of the firm engaged to bring the bankrupt Penn Central Transportation Company (PCTC) (at that time the largest bankruptcy in the history of the U.S.) out of bankruptcy. In that connection he served for five years as president and CEO of the numerous PCTC non-railroad subsidiaries which formed the core of the New York Stock Exchange-listed company that emerged from that bankruptcy. He then became president of that company. Earlier he had served as Senior Vice President for International Affairs of Pan American World Airways, and practiced corporation law with the Los Angeles firm of O’Melveny & Myers. From 1981 to 1995 he was President of The German Marshall Fund of the U.S., an American foundation that funded and conducted programs in the field of US/European political, economic and environmental relations. Immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the foundation recast its program and dedicated the majority of its resources to the promotion of democratic institutions (functioning parliaments, the judiciary, an independent press, political parties, non-government institutions as a part of civil society, etc.) in former Soviet-bloc European countries. In 1996 he was a visiting lecturer in International Law and Policy at the Yale Law School.