The Compact for Education
￼The Compact For Education December 1965
A partnership between the educational leadership and the political leadership for the advancement of education.
A Unique Opportunity
When the delegates from the fifty states began to arrive in Kansas City on September 29, they all realized, I think, that they were involved in a unique movement in American education. Never before had the political and professional forces in education gathered nationally to discuss in concrete terms what they could do in partnership for the advancement of education.
Dr. James B. Conant put it so well when he said “Whatever may be the verdict a year, or five years or ten years from now as to what was or what was not accomplished here, the mere fact that this meeting occurred is unlikely to be forgotten.”
What happened in Kansas City represents a faith in the States as a great natural resource in education, designed for diversity and experimentation and innovation . . . in a system that makes possible for success to feed upon success when programs and ideas are easily transmitted across state and regional lines on a nationwide basis.
What happened in Kansas City represents a genuine commitment to state action and state leadership in education. This Compact Commission does not have authority, nor will it be expected to set policy. It will merely be the means of developing alternatives for policy decisions, which ultimately are to be made, in any event, by local and state policy- making bodies. It will furnish the state with the best available information. It will suggest appropriate goals. It will serve to exchange information, and to advise.
As we continue developing this Compact for Education in an historic attempt to mold a more dynamic and responsive system of American education, we must never forget that though each of us may represent a different perspective in education, we all share the belief that we live in an explosive era when a massive effort must be made to improve the education of every American . . .and forge for the future the kind of educational system that will give breath to American ideals and life to American hopes.
Terry Sandford Duke University December, 1965
￼The Compact For Education
We are entering an important era in the history of our nation . . . a time when both individual fulfillment and national survival confront us in the classroom. It is an explosive period in American education . . . when new techniques, bold experiments, and newly conceived institutions are blossoming in almost every state in the nation.
Since education is the primary job
of the states, the primary direction
and support for public education
must come from the states. If we
are to grow as a nation, the states must rise to the challenge of giving to the American people the very best that is possible in our schoolrooms. Whatever serves that purpose, serves the future of our country.
The states need to do more than ever before, and do it better. That is the guiding impetus behind the Compact for Education: that a partnership between the political and professional forces in education could stimulate the kind of cooperation that could be crucial to the future of American education.
The Compact is an agreement between the states to join together for the improvement of education. The Governors of the party states will appoint representatives from all levels of education to join with him and a member of each house of the legislature to represent the state on a nationwide Education Commission of the States. This Commission will be the governing board of the Compact, with the power to authorize studies, suggest policy alternatives, collect data, disseminate information, and in general serve the states as a stimulus for state action for the advancement of education.
Dr. James B. Conant, president emeritus of Harvard University, looking at how educational policy has been shaped in the United States, concluded: "It is my thesis that such a jumble of influential private
and public bodies does not correspond to the needs of the nation in the 1 960's. Some degree of order needs to be brought out of this chaos, primarily for the benefit of the oncoming generations, but also, to achieve a more effective use of public moneys . . ."
"Let me be bold and make a suggestion for a possible way by which the road to the development of a nationwide educational policy might be opened up. Let the fifty states, or at least fifteen to twenty of the more populous states, enter into a compact for the creation of an ‘Interstate Commission for Planning a Nationwide Educational Policy . . .'"1
In a speech to the National Governors' Conference, he developed his idea further. "I am convinced Washington alone cannot do the job that must be done. The consequence of failure of the states to act together and together with the Federal authorities will be confusion doubly compounded. The vast increase in Federal funds for education, which I heartily welcome, is all too likely to result in a tangled mess that
no one can straighten out unless the states take new and energetic action. And they can only plan together if they can obtain and share information. In short, without some such device as an Interstate Planning Commission, I do not see how a nationwide educational policy can be shaped and made effective. The times challenge educators and statesmen alike. What will be the response from the states?"2
Dr. Conant outlined the role of the Compact at the Kansas City Conference in this manner. "This is not a new mechanism for action – it is a new mechanism that may stimulate action state by state . . . stimulating action by providing the necessary information which is now not available in regard to many important problems . . . . What we need is a new approach to the study of these problems . . . an approach which places no restraint on the states, but provides what the states need to act wisely."3
1. James B. Conant, Shaping Educational Policy, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), pp.109, 123. 2. James B. Conant, address to the National Governors' Conference, July 27, 1965, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 3. James B. Conant, address to Kansas City Planning Conference, September 29, 1965, Kansas City, Missouri.
￼The Development of the Idea
On the basis of Dr. Conant's idea, Terry Sanford, Governor of North Carolina 1961-1965, wrote governors, educators, associations, and others with concern for education that: "I have felt that we need to do two things.
"First, we need to involve governors and state leadership in the process of improvement of education to a greater degree than they have ever been involved.
"Second we need to have available the best and broadest possible array of suggestions and goals from which the policymakers, state and local, can make the policy decisions which will lead to improvement of schools and other educational institutions. If these goals and suggestions are to result in action, they should be put together first in the place by those who will be in a position to make the state and local policy decisions.
"For widespread advances in the quality and effectiveness of our educational processes it is essential that we have the vigorous leadership of the several governors.
"Involvement of the governors will, with few exceptions, involve the legislative administrative leadership of the state. It will involve the budget and tax structure of the state. It will involve greater public understanding of what must be done.
The efforts of the governors, in turn, cannot be productive without the cooperation of their chief state school officers, leaders in higher education, and local school administrators. Unless these two groups, political and educational, are joined by the non-professional educational leaders, the school board members, it will be difficult to achieve the general and popular support which will be necessary for success."4
In May, 1965, Governor Sanford called a meeting of representatives of all organizations and associations related to education plus representatives of the National Governors' Conference to seek their advice "on the best method and organizational structure for bringing together the political and educational leadership of the several states for the purpose of studying, planning, suggesting and promoting sounder objectives and goals for the improvement of education in America.” 5 They met in Washington and the consensus was that the ideas should be developed.
As a result of the Washington meeting, a Special Planning Committee met in the spring and summer of 1965 to develop tentative proposals for forming the Compact. It consisted of representatives of the Governors' Conference Committee on Human Resources; the American Council on Education; the Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges; the Council of Chief State School Officers; the National School Boards Association; the National Association of State Boards of Education; the American Association of School Administrators; and a few advisors, such as John Ivey of the Michigan State University Department of Education, Mitchell Wendell of the Council of State Governments and Alan Pifer of the Carnegie Corporation as well as Governor Sanford and his staff.
The idea of an Interstate Compact for Education was submitted to the National Governors' Conference in July by the Governors' Conference Committee on Human Relations, chaired by Governor Richard Hughes of New Jersey and Governor Mark Hatfield of Oregon. The Committee said it believed the "proposals are of such a lasting significance and far-reaching importance as to be the subject of a special report to this Conference . . . . It is the belief of this Committee that the leadership in the determination of (educational) policy decisions must remain with the States . . . only by state leadership can our invaluable diversity be maintained . . . there must be a mechanism which will weld the states together into a nationwide organization. We agree with Governor Sanford that only by the vigorous leadership of the governors and the intensification of communications between the states can the desirable end of state pre- eminence in the field of education be preserved.”6 The Governors’ Conference adopted unanimously the committee’s special report stating the need for a nationwide alliance for the improvement of education with the active leadership and personal participation of the governors.
4. Terry Sanford, April 6, 1965.
5. Terry Sanford, April 30, 1965.
6. Special Report of the Committee on Human Resources, National Governors' Conference, July 27, 1965, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
￼In August, the National Legislative Conference recommended "to the legislatures and the governors that they give serious consideration to a proposal for interstate cooperation for the advancement of education."7
Presentations of the proposal were also made at the annual meetings of the National School Boards Association, National Association of State Boards of Education, the Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education, the Council of Chief State School Officers, the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Midwestern Governors' Conference, the White House Conference on Education, and the Southern Regional Education Board.
On September 29 and 30, 1965, at Kansas City, a general planning conference on the Compact for Education, attended by nineteen governors and representatives from every state, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of American Samoa and the Virgin Islands, approved the idea and took steps to implement it.
The Kansas City Conference
The Planning Conference for the Compact for Education in Kansas City in September, 1965 and took the following action: *
1. Approved the idea of interstate cooperation in education and took steps to implement a proposal to establish, through an interstate compact, an Education commission of the states, including the governor, two state Legislators and four others appointed by the governor.
2. Approved the Bylaws for the Education Commission of the States.
3. Approved the Compact document, to be transmitted to the states.
4. Approved a schedule of entry fees and state pro-rata contributions to support the Compact organization.
5. Instructed the Steering Committee to seek and hire the best qualified person as Executive Director of the Compact
6. Authorized a Standing committee to search out and accept bids from the States for the location of the permanent
offices of the Compact organization, making every attempt to locate the site near a university. 7. Set up an Interim Planning, Development and Steering Committee with instructions to:
(b) Accept and expend funds,
(d) Select a headquarters site, in consultation with the site-selection committee. (e) Present and explain the compact to the various governors and state legislatures (f) Generally assume the task of creating the Compact for Education.
7. Resolution of the National Legislative Committee, adopted August 13, 1965, Portland, Oregon. * See appendix pages 12-15 for the text of these Resolutions.
￼What Kind of Research and Action For the Compact For Education
The Education Commission of the States should merely be the means of developing alternatives for policy decisions, which ultimately are to be made, in any event, by local and state policymaking bodies. It should furnish the states with the best available information. It should suggest appropriate goals. It should serve to exchange information, and to advise. It should provide the states with a forum for sharing experiences, improving standards, and debating goals.
Dr. Conant gave an example to the fifty governors at the 1965 National Governor's Conference: "In more than one state the question is being asked, how shall we expand public educational facilities for grades 13 and 14. Should we follow the California pattern with many two-year community colleges, closely linked with both four-year multi-purpose state colleges and a state university? Or shall we follow the lead of Indiana by establishing two-year branches of the state university throughout the state? There is no study in depth of the experience of the different states in this vital matter. There is no way in which a state now considering the subject can obtain reliable and complete information from other states which have had many years of experience. Not that I yearn for the day when the pattern of post-high school education would be the same in all the states. Not at all. Diversity we shall have and ought to have. But we ought to have, I believe, a mechanism by which each state knows exactly what the other states have done in each educational area and the arguments pro and con for any changes which are being considered. We ought to have a way by which the states could rapidly exchange information and plans in all educational matters from the kindergarten to the graduate schools of a university."8
There are many other things the Commission could study. The added and some deleted:
1. Financing of public education by local, state and
2. Preschool training – Project Head start.
3. Structure of local administration of schools.
4. How state departments of education can provide
more effective leadership.
5. Organization of state departments of education.
6. The problems of school districting.
7. The promise and limits of school consolidation.
8. Design, architecture and setting the role of
physical structure in education.
9. Special problems of the large city high school, the
rural high school and the suburban high school.
10. Teacher training and retraining.
11. Teacher selection and recruitment.
12. Teacher certification.
13. Teacher salaries.
14. Opportunities for teacher advancement.
15. The summer session – how can it be made
16. Organization of the school day.
17. Adequacy of guidance services.
18. The curriculum; its breadth and depth.
19. The American high school and the Arts: Painting,
dance, music, drama.
20. Social studies, including American history.
21. Developing reading skills.
22. New techniques for instruction in English,
American literature and composition.
23. Adequacy of general education in the high school.
24. Evaluation of new techniques including T.V.,
following is a list of some, to which many can be
25. Slum schools.
26. Segregated schools.
27. The education of students of limited ability.
28. How to reach the underachievers.
29. The education of the disadvantaged.
30. The possibilities of the "gifted."
31. The reform of instructional methods and materials
including the new developments in foreign languages, physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology.
32. Vocational education and education for employment immediately on leaving high school related to society's needs.
33. On-the-job education programs.
34. Education beyond the high school; the junior
colleges; the comprehensive community colleges.
35. Institutions for technical training.
36. Role of business community in education –
cooperative technical schools.
37. Science and engineering, including inquiry into
supply and demand of those prepared for research and the facilities available for training such personnel.
38. Uniformity of standards for degrees beyond the Masters' degrees.
39. Education in the professions – law, medicine, etc.
40. The promotion of research and scholarly
endeavors in all fields in our institutions of higher
41. The role of the small liberal arts college.
42. The effect of the "publish or perish" dictum on
￼programmed instruction and audio-visual aids.
teaching abilities, in higher education.
￼￼43. How free academic freedom.
44. Aid to higher education – to the individual or the
45. The state's cost in producing an advanced degree
46. Education outside the school – the use of indigenous settings.
47. State supported public kindergartens.
recipient in relation to its use of him.
8. James B. Conant, Address to the National Governors’ Conference, July 27, 1965, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
The next steps on the part of each state will be:
1. AdherencetothetermsoftheCompactbyExecutiveOrderbytheGovernor,and/or 2. EnactmentoftheCompactanditsEnablingActbytheLegislature
The National Governors’ Conference unanimously adopted a resolution endorsing the Compact idea, as did the National Legislative conference. At the Kansas City Planning Conference, every state, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and two territories were represented. Nineteen governors came personally as did fifty State Legislators and over 300 educators from all levels of education and sections of the country. At that time, more than a dozen governors indicated an intention to adhere to the Compact by an immediate Executive Order until their legislatures could do so by Enabling Act at their next Legislative Session.
When sufficient states have adhered by either Executive Order or legislative enactment, the Interim committee will call a conference of participating states, will dissolve itself, and a permanent Steering Committee, under the terms of the Compact, will be organized to carry forward its purposes.
The Interim Planning, Development and Steering Committee is taking steps to carry out the charge of the Kansas City Planning Conference on the Compact for Education.
The Carnegie Corporation and the Danforth Foundation have made grants of $150,000 each to the Interim Steering Committee through the Study of American States at Duke University to aid in the initial development period.
The Interim Committee elected Governor John Chafee, Rhode Island, Chairman; Dr. Fred Harvey Harrington, President, University of Wisconsin, Vice Chairman; and Dr. Wendell H. Pierce, Superintendent of Cincinnati Schools, Ohio, Treasurer.
Members of the Interim Committee are actively presenting the Compact idea throughout the country and especially to the Governors and the State Legislatures for the formal ratification.
Screening of the best possible candidates for Executive Director and other positions is under way.
The Interim Committee is accepting bids and evaluating possible sites for the location of the Compact offices.
The Interim Committee has generally assumed the task of creating the Compact for Education as soon as
￼What It Is NOT
1. The Compact for Education is not a policy-maker . . . it will carry no authority to impose any recommendations . . . nor will it make recommendations without exploring and indicating all avenues and possible courses of action. It will suggest policy alternatives . . . leaving to the states – state officials, state legislatures, and trustees of institutions of higher education – which, if any, of the alternatives will be accepted. Its reports will not be binding, but will be informational in character.
2. TheCompactforEducationdoesnotrepresentadriveforuniformityinAmericaneducation.Itwillstimulate diversified answers to the problems in education recognizing the differences between the states. It will encourage dissent.
3. The Compact for Education will not lobby inside the states nor in Washington. It will furnish the educational and political leadership of the states with a vehicle to debate goals and answers.
4. TheCompactforEducationdoesnotrepresentanefforttocurtailorattackfederalaidtoeducation,orfederal activity. In fact it makes provisions for Federal cooperation and participation. It is an effort to bring to bear all the resources that the American people have to improve education and to encourage state action for better schools and schooling.
5. TheCompactforEducationwillnotcompetewith,replaceormakeobsoletethecurrentvoluntaryassociationsor national and regional organizations in the field of education. It will cooperate fully, assuring that there is a minimum of overlap or duplication . . . it will seek the frontiers, where effort is needed and recommendations necessary.
What It Could Accomplish
1. A partnership between the educational and political forces for advancement of education.
3. A means of interchange of information and ideas and
successful programs across state lines and regions for
the benefit of the states.
policy alternatives for state consideration and decision.
5. A way to collect, correlate, analyze and interpret data
for use by the states.
6. A way to assemble the best minds and the most
experienced opinions into working parties to explore new
ways for the states to attack the problems and carry out research on all aspects of education.
7. A way to encourage the states to fulfill their role as the senior partner in American education.
COMPACT FOR EDUCATION Preamble
WHEREAS, the proper education of all citizens is one of the most important responsibilities of the States to preserve a free and open society in the United States; and
WHEREAS, the increasing demands of our whole national life for improving and expanding educational services require a broad exchange of research data and information concerning the problems and practices of education; and
WHEREAS, there is a vital need for strengthening the voices of the States in the formulation of alternative nationwide educational policies,
THE STATES AFFIRM the need for close and continuing consultation among our several States on all matters of education, and do hereby establish this Compact for Education.
￼A brief summary of
THE COMPACT FOR EDUCATION
The Compact for Education consists of a Preamble, the compact itself, which must be passed in an identical form by every state which joins; and an enabling act which can be varied from state to state and therefore is presented here as a “Suggested Act.” To put it another way, the Compact is the agreement between the states and the enabling act is the instrument by which each state puts the agreement into effect.
An article-by-article description of the compact follows:
Article I. Article II.
Purposes and Policy.
Broad statement of purposes and policy.
The states, the territories of American Samoa, Guam and the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia are defined as state.
Article III. The Commission.
Sets up an Education Commission of the States which will be the governing body of the compact organization. Membership will consist of seven representatives from each state: The governor, two legislators (one from each house), and four others from all levels of education. In addition, provides for ten non-voting commissioners to represent national education organizations.
Also provides for an Executive Director, officers, annual meetings, bylaws, power to receive funds, and maintain facilities.
Article IV. Powers.
Generally gives the Commission authority to conduct studies and make recommendations.
Article V. Cooperation with the Federal Government.
Provides for ten representatives on the Commission which may come from all branches of the federal government, to serve without vote.
Article VI. Committees.
Provides for a Steering Committee of thirty-two members selected from the entire Commission, eight of whom will be Governors and eight of whom will be Legislators. Also a federal member serving without vote. All will serve staggered terms, to assure continuity. Provides, also for other advisory or technical committees.
Article VII. Finance.
Provides for a budget, the allocation of expenses among the party states, and a yearly audit.
Article VIII. Eligible Parties: Entry Into and Withdrawal.
Provides for an Executive Compact for two years, allowing time for states to gain legislative enactment of the Compact.
Article IX. Construction and Severability.
Is a routine provision in most compacts.
￼The Suggested Enabling Act recommends the establishment of a [Name of State] Educational Council. This Council could be made up of the seven representatives to the Commission plus anyone else the Governor feels ought to be consulted on questions before the Commission. Of course, the states may adopt any kind of enabling act they wish.
Purpose and Policy.
Compact for Education
1. Establishandmaintainclosecooperationandunderstandingamongexecutive,legislative,professional educational and lay leadership on a nationwide basis at the state and local levels.
2. Provideaforumforthediscussion,development,crystallizationandrecommendationofpublicpolicy alternatives in the field of education.
3. Provideaclearinghouseofinformationonmattersrelatingtoeducationproblemsandhowtheyarebeing met in different places throughout the nation, so that the executive and legislative branches of state government and of local communities may have ready access to the experience and record of the entire country, and so that both lay and professional groups in the field of education may have additional avenues for the sharing of experience and the interchange of ideas in the formation of public policy in education.
4. Facilitate the improvement of state and local education systems so that all of them will be able to meet adequate and desirable goals in a society that requires continuous qualitative and quantitative advance in educational opportunities, methods and facilities.
B. It is the policy of this compact to encourage and promote local and state initiative in the development, maintenance, improvement and administration of education systems and institutions in a manner that will accord with the needs and advantages of diversity among localities and states.
C. Thepartystatesrecognizethateachofthemhasaninterestinthequalityandquantityofeducationfurnishedineachofthe other states, as well as in the excellence of its own education systems and institutions, because of the highly mobile character of individuals within the nation, and because the products and services contributing to the health, welfare and economic advancement of each state are supplied in significant part by persons educated in other states.
As used in this compact, "state" means a state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
A. The Education Commission of the States, hereinafter called "the Commission," is hereby established. The Commission shall consist of seven members representing each party state. One of such members shall be the Governor; two shall be members of the state legislature selected by its respective houses and serving in such manner as the legislature may determine; and four shall be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the Governor, unless the laws of the state otherwise provide. If the laws of a state prevent legislators from serving on the Commission, six members shall be appointed and serve at the pleasure of the Governor, unless the laws of the state otherwise provide. In addition to any other principles or requirements which a state may establish for the appointment and service of its members of the Commission, the guiding principle for the composition of the membership on the Commission from each party state shall be that the members representing such state shall, by virtue of their training, experience, knowledge or affiliations, be in a position collectively to reflect broadly the interests of the state government, higher education, the state education system, local education, lay and professional, public and nonpublic
￼educational leadership. Of those appointees, one shall be the head of a state agency or institution, designated by the Governor, having responsibility for one or more programs of public education. In addition to the members of the Commission representing the party states, there may be not to exceed ten non-voting commissioners selected by the Steering Committee for terms of one year. Such commissioners shall represent leading national organizations of professional educators or persons concerned with educational administration.
B. ThemembersoftheCommissionshallbeentitledtoonevoteeachontheCommission.NoactionoftheCommissionshall be binding unless taken at a meeting at which a majority of the total number of votes on the Commission are cast in favor thereof. Action of the Commission shall be only at a meeting at which a majority of the Commissioners are present. The Commission shall meet at least once a year. In its bylaws, and subject to such directions and limitations as may be contained therein, the Commission may delegate the exercise of any of its powers to the Steering Committee or the Executive Director, except for the power to approve budgets or requests for appropriations, the power to make policy recommendations pursuant to Article IV and adoption of the annual report pursuant to Article III(j).
C. The Commission shall have a seal.
D. The Commission shall elect annually, from among its members, a Chairman, who shall be a Governor; a Vice Chairman; and a Treasurer. The Commission shall provide for the appointment of an Executive Director. Such Executive Director shall serve at the pleasure of the Commission, and together with the Treasurer and such other personnel as the Commission may deem appropriate shall be bonded in such amount as the Commission shall determine. The Executive Director shall be Secretary.
E. Irrespectiveofthecivilservice,personnelorothermeritsystemlawsofanyofthepartystates,theExecutiveDirector, subject to the approval of the Steering Committee, shall appoint, remove or discharge such personnel as may be necessary for the performance of the functions of the Commission, and shall fix the duties and compensation of such personnel. The Commission in its bylaws shall provide for the personnel policies and programs of the Commission.
F. The Commission may borrow, accept or contract for the services of personnel from any party jurisdiction, the United States or any subdivision or agency of the aforementioned governments, or from any agency of two or more of the party jurisdictions or their subdivisions.
G. The Commission may accept for any of its purposes and functions under this Compact any and all donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials and services, conditional or otherwise, from any state, the United States or any other governmental agency, or from any person, firm, association, foundation or corporation, and may receive, utilize and dispose of the same. Any donation or grant accepted by the Commission pursuant to this paragraph or services borrowed pursuant to paragraph (f) of this Article shall be reported in the annual report of the Commission. Such report shall include the nature, amount and conditions, if any, of the donation, grant or services borrowed, and the identity of the donor or lender.
H. The Commission may establish and maintain such facilities as may be necessary for the transacting of its business. The Commission may acquire, hold and convey real and personal property and any interest therein.
I. TheCommissionshalladoptbylawsfortheconductofitsbusinessandshallhavethepowertoamendandrescindthese bylaws. The Commission shall publish its bylaws in convenient form and shall file a copy thereof and a copy of any amendment thereto with the appropriate agency or officer in each of the party states.
J. TheCommissionannuallyshallmaketotheGovernorandlegislatureofeachpartystateareportcoveringtheactivitiesofthe Commission for the preceding year. The Commission may make such additional reports as it may deem desirable.
In addition to authority conferred on the Commission by other provisions of the Compact, the Commission shall have authority to:
2. Encourageandfosterresearchinallaspectsofeducation,butwithspecialreferencetothedesirablescopeof instruction, organization, administration and instructional methods and standards employed or suitable for employment in public education systems.
3. Developproposalsforadequatefinancingofeducationasawholeandateachofitsmanylevels. 16
￼4. ConductorparticipateinresearchofthetypesreferredtointhisArticleinanyinstancewheretheCommission finds that such research is necessary for the advancement of the purposes and policies of this Compact, using fully the resources of national associations, regional compact organizations for higher education, and other agencies and institutions, both public and private.
5. Formulatesuggestedpoliciesandplansfortheimprovementofpubliceducationasawhole,orforanysegment thereof, and make recommendations with respect thereto available to the appropriate governmental units, agencies and public officials.
6. Dosuchotherthingsasmaybenecessaryorincidentaltotheadministrationofanyofitsauthorityorfunctions pursuant to this Compact.
Cooperation with Federal Government.
A. If the laws of the United States specifically so provide, or if administrative provision is made therefor within the federal government, the United States may be represented on the Commission by not to exceed 10 representatives. Any such representative or representatives of the United States shall be appointed and serve in such manner as may be provided by or pursuant to federal law, and may be drawn from any one or more branches of the federal government, but no such representative shall have a vote on the Commission.
B. The Commission may provide information and make recommendations to any executive or legislative agency or officer of the federal government concerning the common education policies of the states, and may advise with any such agencies or officers concerning any matter of mutual interest.
A. To assist in the expeditious conduct of its business when the full Commission is not meeting, the Commission shall elect a Steering Committee of 32 members which, subject to the provisions of this Compact and consistent with the policies of the Commission, shall be constituted and function as provided in the bylaws of the Commission. One-fourth of the voting membership of the Steering Committee shall consist of Governors, one-fourth shall consist of Legislators, and the remainder shall consist of other members of the Commission. A federal representative on the Commission may serve with the Steering Committee, but without vote. The voting members of the Steering Committee shall serve for terms of two years, except that members elected to the first Steering Committee of the Commission shall be elected as follows: 16 for one year and 16 for two years. The Chairman, Vice Chairman and Treasurer of the Commission shall be members of the Steering Committee and, anything in this paragraph to the contrary notwithstanding, shall serve during their continuance in these offices. Vacancies in the Steering Committee shall not affect its authority to act, but the Commission at its next regularly ensuing meeting following the occurrence of any vacancy shall fill it for the unexpired term. No person shall serve more than two terms as a member of the Steering Committee, provided that service for a partial term of one year or less shall not be counted toward the two-term limitation.
B. The Commission may establish advisory and technical committees composed of state, local and federal officials, and private persons to advise it with respect to any one or more of its functions. Any advisory or technical committee may, on request of the states concerned, be established to consider any matter of special concern to two or more of the party states.
C. The Commission may establish such additional committees as its bylaws may provide.
A. The Commission shall advise the Governor or designated officer or officers of each party state of its budget and estimated expenditures for such period as may be required by the laws of that party state. Each of the Commission's budgets of estimated expenditures shall contain specific recommendations of the amount or amounts to be appropriated by each of the party states.
￼B. The total amount of appropriation requests under any budget shall be apportioned among the party states. In making such apportionment, the Commission shall devise and employ a formula which takes equitable account of the populations and per-capita income levels of the party states.
C. The Commission shall not pledge the credit of any party states. The Commission may meet any of its obligations in whole or in part with funds available to it pursuant to Article III(g) of this Compact, provided that the Commission takes specific action setting aside such funds prior to incurring an obligation to be met in whole or in part in such manner. Except where the Commission makes funds available to it pursuant to Article 111(g) thereof, the Commission shall not incur any obligation prior to the allotment of funds by the party states adequate to meet the same.
D. The Commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the Commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established by its bylaws. However, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the Commission shall be audited yearly by a qualified public accountant, and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual reports of the Commission.
E. TheaccountsoftheCommissionshallbeopenatanyreasonabletimeforinspectionbydulyconstitutedofficersoftheparty states and by any persons authorized by the Commission.
F. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to prevent Commission compliance with laws relating to audit or inspection of accounts by or on behalf of any government contributing to the support of the Commission.
Eligible Parties; Entry Into and Withdrawal.
A. This Compact shall have as eligible parties all states, territories and possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In respect of any such jurisdiction not having a Governor, the term "Governor," as used in this Compact, shall mean the closest equivalent official of such jurisdiction.
B. Any state or other eligible jurisdiction may enter into this Compact, and it shall become binding thereon when it has adopted the same, provided that in order to enter into initial effect, adoption by at least 10 eligible party jurisdictions shall be required.
C. Adoption of the Compact may be either by enactment thereof or by adherence thereto by the Governor; provided that in the absence of enactment, adherence by the Governor shall be sufficient to make his state a party only until December 31, 1967. During any period when a state is participating in this Compact through gubernatorial action, the Governor shall appoint those persons who, in addition to himself, shall serve as the members of the Commission from his state, and shall provide to the Commission an equitable share of the financial support of the Commission from any source available to him.
D. Except for a withdrawal effective on December 31, 1967, in accordance with paragraph C of this Article, any party state may withdraw from this Compact by enacting a statute repealing the same, but no such withdrawal shall take effect until one year after the Governor of the withdrawing state has given notice in writing of the withdrawal to the Governors of all other party states. No withdrawal shall affect any liability already incurred by or chargeable to a party state prior to the time of such withdrawal.
Amendments to the Compact.
This Compact may be amended by a vote of two-thirds of the members of the Commission present and voting when ratified by the legislatures of two-thirds of the party states.
Construction and Severability.
This Compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this Compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this Compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any state or of the United States, or the application thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this Compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state participating therein, the Compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.
￼Suggested Enabling Act
￼￼￼￼￼This act is simply suggested as an aid to the States. A State may ignore it, alter it or include it in any form it desires.
COMPACT FOR EDUCATION
The Compact for Education is hereby entered into and enacted into law with all jurisdictions legally joining therein, in the form substantially as follows:
[INSERT EXACT TEXT OF COMPACT HERE]
There is hereby established the (Name of State) Education Council composed of the members of the Education Commission of the States representing this state and _____________ other persons appointed by the Governor for terms of (three) years. Such other persons shall be selected so as to be broadly representative of professional and lay interest within this State having the responsibilities for, knowledge with respect to, and interest in educational matters. The Chairman shall be designated by the Governor from among its members. The Council shall meet on the call of its Chairman or at the request of a majority of its members, but in any event the Council shall meet not less than three times in each year. The Council may consider any and all matters relating to recommendations of the Education Commission of the States and the activities of the members in representing this State thereon.
Pursuant to Article III(i) of the Compact, the Commission shall file a copy of its bylaws and any amendment thereto with the [insert designation of appropriate state agency or official].
(Insert effective date.)
￼Members of the Interim Planning and Steering Committee
Governor John Chafee, Rhode Island, Chairman
Dr. Fred H. Harrington, President, University of Wisconsin, Vice-Chairman
Dr. Wendell H. Pierce, Superintendent of Cincinnati Public Schools, Ohio, Treasurer
Governor Edmund G. Brown, California
Governor Jack M. Campbell, New Mexico
Governor Clifford P. Hansen, Wyoming
Governor Mark O. Hatfield, Oregon
Governor Richard J. Hughes, New Jersey
Governor Otto Kerner, Illinois
Governor John J. McKeithen, Louisiana
Governor Robert E. McNair, South Carolina
Governor Karl F. Rolvaag, Minnesota
Dr. James E. Allen, Jr., Commissioner of Education, New York
Dr. Milo Bail, Former President, University of Omaha, Nebraska
Senator Clarence Bell, State Senate of Arkansas
Dr. Rodney Berg, President, Everett Junior College, Washington
Mr. John C. Driscoll, Chairman, State Board of Education, New Hampshire
Dr. Richard P . Gousha, Superintendent of the State Department of Public Instruction, Delaware
Mr. John E. Gray, Chairman, Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System, Texas
Dr. Andrew Holt, President, University of Tennessee, Tennessee
Mrs. Richard Kading, Chairman, P.T.A. Legislative Committee, Idaho
Dr. Martin Lichterman, Director, New England Board of Higher Education, Massachusetts
Mr. Dave Nichols, President, Kansas State Association of School Boards, Kansas
Representative Lucille Pinkerton, Chairman, House Health, Welfare and Education Committee, Alaska Monsignor Felix Pitt, Executive Secretary, Catholic School Board, Kentucky
Mrs. Eldra L. M. Shulterbrandt, Chairman, Board of Education, Virgin Islands
Senator David K. Trask, State Senate of Hawaii
Dr. William James Lord Wallace, President, West Virginia State college, West Virginia
Senator Richard Webster, State Senate of Missouri
￼Resolutions Passed at Kansas City
educational and governmental leaders for the improvement of education.
2. Thataninterimplanning,developmentandsteeringcommitteebeestablishedforthepurposeofcarryingout the intent of this Conference, empowered to accept and expend funds, to employ a director and other staff members, to select a headquarters site, to present and explain the Compact to the various governors and state legislative bodies, and generally to assume the task of creating such compact as herein declared desirable;
3. Thatthemembershipofthisinterimcommitteebethoseindividualsrecommendedbythecommitteeonthe nomination of a Steering Committee
Committee on Financing and Contributions
WHEREAS, the amount of money available to the Educational commission of the States will determine to a large extent its potential for service to the states; and,
WHEREAS, there is a great desire on the part of the states to assure that the Compact for Education is adequately financed and the financial responsibility fairly apportioned; and,
WHEREAS, an initial entry fee is necessary to give the organization of good beginning and carry the expense of operation and study until the Legilatures can meet;
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED:
1. ThatfortheperiodendingDecember31,1967,eachStateshallprovideaninitialentryfeetojointhe Compact; that this fee not exceed $4,000 nor fall below $3,000 and come through legislative appropriation of from such other sources as may be available; that this money, along with funds from foundations and other sources, serve to support the organization until December 31, 1967.
2. That beginning January 1, 1968, the state pro-rata contributions to support the budget be allocated by a formula which equitably takes into consideration population and income; that the cost to each state shall be reasonable enough to encourage membership, large enough to sustain an active operation, and fixed in advance of membership so the legislatures will know the cost of participation.
3. Thattherangeforcontributionsbythestatesrunfromapproximately$22,000peryearto$7,500peryear, subject to approval of the operating budget by the Commission.
Committee on State Representation
WHEREAS, each state has primary responsibility for public education within its borders; and,
WHEREAS, the responsibility for public education rests not only with the professional forces in education, but with the political forces in each state; and,
WHEREAS, there is a distinct need to assure that the Educational Commission of the Stats is large enough to represent all the forces of education, but not too large and cumbersome to act; and,
WHEREAS, the primary purpose of this Compact is ot join the political and professional and lay leadership in education into a pertnership for the advancement of education;
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED,
That Article III, a copy of which is hereto attached, be approved as submitted so that each state has seven representatives, to include the Governor, two members of the legislature and four other persons selected at the discretion of the Governor.
￼Committee to Select an Executive Director
WHEREAS, when the Compact becomes operative there will be a need to select an Executive Director with the qualities of leadership and intelligence to assuree that the Compact will succeed; and,
WHEREAS, this choice will be the most crucial decision in the early life of the orgaization of the compact; and, WHEREAS, the nation should be surveyed, and a highly qualifiedp person sought out for this position; and, WHEREAS, the salary offered for this position must be sufficient to secure the finest talent in the United States; and, WHEREAS, the Executive Director must be respected and trusted by the education community and by the states; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED:
1. ThattheSteeringcommitteeconstituteitselfintoastandingcommitteetosecureaqualifiedExecutive Director for the Compact at a salary commensurate with the responsibilities of the position.
Committee on Selection of a Site for a Permanent Office
WHEREAS, the staff of the Compact must be housed in offices suitable for its activities; and,
WHEREAS, many States will want to bid for the offices int erms of offering space, facilities, services, etc.; and,
WHEREAS, there will probably be a number of competing locations offered, and the advantages of each will have to be weighed and compared;
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED:
1. ThatthisCommitteeconstiuteitselfintoaStandingcommitteetoacceptbidsfromtheStatesforthelocation of the permanent offices of the Compact;
2. That the Committee make every effort to locat the offices near a university os that the staff will have use of the libraries, and possily the accounting facilities of the University;
3. ThattheExecutiveDirectortransmittotheStatesanestimateofneedsandtheamountofmoneythatwillbe available for rent so that the states will be able to make some judgment as to the kind of facility the Compact will be seeking.
Committee on Bylaws
WHEREAS, there is a need for bylaws to deal with a number of procedural details such as quorums, attendance, duties of the officers, executive committee, frequency of meetings, etc.; and,
WHEREAS, the Bylaws as hereby presented seem satisfactory as an effective instrument to deal with these problems; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED:
1. ThattheBylawsasherebypresentedbeapprovedastheinitialbylawsfortheEducationalCommissionofthe States.
2. That the Steering Committee be empowered to recommend changes in the bylaws to meet problems as they arise in setting up the Compact.
￼Bylaws for the Education Commission of the States
(a) The officers of the Commission shall be a chairman, vice chairman, secretary and treasurer.
(b) The chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Commission and Steering Committee. Subject to any applicable provisions of the Compact and any directions or instructions given by the Commission or the Steering Committee, he may appoint the members of committees authorized by the Commission or the Steering Committee, and designate the chairman of any such committee.
(c) The vice chairman shall perform the duties of the chairman whenever the chairman is unable, by reason of illness, absence, or other disability to perform them.
(d) The secretary, who shall be the Executive Director of the Commission, shall keep the records of the Commission, and prepare and distribute minutes and summaries of meetings of the Commission, the Steering Committee, the Executive Committee.
(e) The treasurer shall have general responsibility for the funds of the Commission.
2. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND STAFF
(a) The Steering Committee shall select and fix the salary of the Executive Director of the Commission, and he shall serve at its pleasure.
(b) The Executive Director, subject to the approval of the Steering Committee, may employ such staff as may be necessary to assist him in performing the work of the Commission.
(c) The Executive Director shall be in general administrative charge of the work of the Commission. He shall maintain all records of the Commission and its meetings, and shall prepare a draft of the annual report for consideration by the Steering Committee.
3. BUDGETS AND FINANCE
(a) The Executive Director shall prepare a draft budget, from time to time, in order to meet the requirements of the Compact, and shall submit such draft for consideration by the Steering Committee.
(b) The Executive Director shall assist the Treasurer in the performance of his duties. Subject to the supervision of the Treasurer, the Executive Director shall receive and deposit funds in the name of the Commission. If authorized by the Treasurer, the Executive Director shall make final certification for payment of all duly authorized items of expenditure to be paid out of the funds of the Commission.
(c) The Steering Committee shall determine the amount of the bond to be required of the Executive Director and the Treasurer, and shall also designate which, if any, of the other employees of the Commission shall be bonded, and in what amounts.
￼4. STEERING COMMITTEE
(a) In the intervals between meetings – of the Commission, and within the policy and other directions supplied by the Commission, the Steering Committee shall act for the Commission in all matters except those which the Compact prohibits the Commission from delegating to the Steering Committee or Executive Director, but nothing contained herein shall be construed to prevent the Executive Director from exercising authority and discharging his responsibilities pursuant to these bylaws.
(b) The Steering Committee shall meet quarterly: one of such meetings shall be in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Commission, and the others shall be approximately at three month intervals. On call of the Chairman, the Steering Committee may hold such additional meetings as are appropriate. Within thirty days after the close of each quarterly meeting, the date for the subsequent meeting shall be fixed and notice immediately given to all members of the Steering Committee by mail. Notice of other meetings of the Steering Committee shall be sent to all members thereof by whatever means is best calculated to give them actual notice thereof at least forty-eight hours in advance.
(c) Ten members of the Steering Committee shall constitute a quorum.
5. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
The Steering Committee shall select an Executive Committee, which shall be composed of three of its members broadly representative of the Commission. The Executive Committee may give the Executive Director approval for such matters as would require the approval of the Commission or Steering Committee, if either were meeting; provided that the authority of the Executive Committee shall extend only to matters of administration and not of Commission policy; and provided further that any action of the Executive Committee shall be reported to and subject to ratification or disallowance at the next meeting of the Steering Committee.
6. MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION
The regular meeting of the Commission shall be held during the second quarter of each year at a time and place determined by the Steering Committee. Such other meetings as may be required to transact the business of the Commission may be held on call of the Chairman or the Steering Committee. Every member of the Commission shall be notified of the time and place of each Commission meeting by mail at least sixty days in advance thereof. No business shall be in order at a meeting unless the requirement of notice has been met fully.
7. RECORD VOTE
Upon demand of any member of the Steering Committee in attendance at a meeting thereof, and after due debate, the roll shall be called and a vote recorded on any motion, resolution or amendment thereto. At any meeting of the Commission, such record vote shall be taken upon demand of any fifteen voting members of the Commission.
These bylaws, or any portion thereof, may be amended, revised, or repealed at any meeting of the Commission, provided that notice in writing of the proposed amendment, revision, or repeal shall have been mailed to each member of the Commission at least thirty days prior to the meeting, and that the notice of such meeting shall contain a copy of the proposed amendment, revision, or appeal.
Any manner of procedure not covered by these bylaws shall be governed by Roberts’ Rules of Order.
￼Summary of Business Meeting Interim Steering Committee
New York City December 7-8, 1965
1. ACCEPTING FOUNDATION GRANTS
2. REGARDING ADVISORY COMMITTEES TO THE COMMISSION
That it be the sense of this Steering Committee that at the earliest possible moment there shall be formed advisory committees representing all levels of education to aid the Commission in the performance of its task; and that, if needed, the staff will bring in amendments ot the bylaws at the next meeting of the Steering Committee.
II. Motions Passed
1. ON SELECTING AN EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR:
That the three officers and three others be appointed by the Chairman and compose a nominating committee and be clothed with authority to set up qualifications and standards, screen candidates, interview and bring recommendations to the Steering Committee at its next meeting.
2. ON SELECTING A SITE FOR HEADQUARTERS
That the Chairman be empowered to appoint a sub-committee on site selection to hear proposals and offers, and make recommendations, bearing in mind that the sub-committee might well want to take into account the views of the Executive Director.
3. ON TEMPORARY STAFF BELOW EXECUTIVE DRIECTOR:
That the Chairman and the officers be empowered to select a temporary staff below the level of Executive director to help with the details of getting the Compact going, and that they further be empowered to locate this staff wherever they thing best.
III. Other Business
ELECTION OF OFFICERS
Governor John chafee of Rhode Island, Chairman
Dr. Fred Harvey Harrington of Wisconsin, Vice-Chairman Dr. Wendall Pierce of Ohio, Treasurer
APPOINTMENT OF SITE SELECTION COMMITTEEE:
Governor Jack Campbell of New Mexico, Chairman
Governor Karl Rolvagg of Minnesota
Dr. Wendal Pierce, Superintendent, Cincinnati Public Schools, Ohio
Mrs. Richard Kading, Chairman, P.T.A. Legislative committee, Idaho
Mr. John E. Gray, Chairman, coordinating Board, Texas College and University System, Texas
￼Statement of Policies Regarding Studies and Recommendations of the Commission
WHEREAS, it is the policy of the Compact for Education to encourage and promote local and state initiative in the development, maintenance, improvement and administration of educational systems and institutions in a mannaer which will accord with the needs and advantages of diversity among localities and States; and
WHEREAS, diversity and variety have characterized American education and are two of the major sources of its strength, since they permit a maximum of experimentation and innovation in meeting the educational needs of the American people;
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED:
1. ThattheCommissionwillperformitsfunctioninmostinstancesasaclearinghouseprovidinginformation on matters relating to educational problems and how they are being met in different places throughout the nation.
2. ThatincasesinwhichtheCommissionfindsitdesirabletomakerecommendationstotheseveralstatesand the Federal Government, it shall be the policy of the Commission to present these as alternative proposals wherever feasible; and further, that in making its reports, the commission shall present alternative views.
December 8, 1965.
￼Alfred Baxter & Associates Consultants in Planning & Management Claremont Hotel • Berkeley, California Telephone • 415 • Thornwall 9-3301
September 23, 1965
Honorable Terry Sanford A Study of American States Duke University
Durham, North Carolina
Dear Governor Sanford:
As you requested, we have prepared a sample budget for the Compact for Education. In addition, we have included a schedule of initial payments for the cost to the states of joining the Compact. As you suggested, each state will have a fixed fee for entry into the Compact, payable when it joins. This money, along with funds from foundations and other sources will make up the revenue for the organization for approximately 18 months or until the legislatures of the states begin their sessions and appropriate their respective pro rata shares to run the organization.
In addition to the fixed entry fee, we have also worked out a scale of payments for each state, based on population and per capita income. There are any number of ways this could have been figured, but this seemed a fair way to go about it. We have adopted your range of $22,000 per year for the largest states to $7,500 per year for the smallest.
Therefore, from these reports, each state can tell approximately what it will cost to join initially (the fixed fee), what it will cost to remain a member (the scale of pro rata payments) and what its money will buy in terms of services (the budget).
The relationship between income and budgeting is a close one and it is difficult to work out a budget without any income guidelines. However, we have done our best to present an optimum situation which we feel is both realistic and workable.
Alfred W. Baxter
￼Table 1 Estimated, Growth - Phased Biennial Budgets 1
Cost Categories (Recurring and non-recurring)
Printing ................................. Conferences .............................
Library Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal & Audit Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5%Contingency .......................... InitialResearchProjects ....................
Subtotals (Recurring Annual Costs) . . . . . . . . . . . CapitalOutlay(Non-recurring)............... 15,000
1/ These budgets have not been designed to fit the revenue estimates in Section III. Should revenues not meet the budgets, it must be assumed that program cuts will be made or that non-state support will be available.
2/ Biennial Totals = 2 a recurring subtotal plus capital outlay.
215,500 32,325 4,000 26,000 19,000 20,000 21,000 12,000 2,000 3,000 2,400 17,861
304,500 45,675 5,000 35,000 23,000 40,000 24,000 15,000 2,000 3,500 2,800 24,973
345,500 51,825 6,000 40,000 24,000 50,000 27,000 15,000 2,000 4,000 3,200 28,426
385,000 57,750 7,000 44,000 27,000 56,000 30,000 15,000 2,000 4,500 3,600 31,593
117,000 17,550 6,000 13,500 16,000 10,000 18,000 9,000 2,000 2,500 2,000 10,677 100,000 324,227
375,086 8,000 758,200
Growth Stages and Number of Members
State Rank Ordered by Fee Proration Formula and Schedules of Initial and Regular Annual Fees
States in Rank Order 1/
New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florida ...................... Massachusetts ................ Indiana ...................... North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Georgia ..................... Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alabama ..................... Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oregon ..................... Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, DC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Hampshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schedule I Fee for Initial Membership to Dec. 31, 1967
$ 7,000 7,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
SCHEDULE II Annual Fee for Compact Membership After Jan. 1, 1968
22,000 22,000 20,000 19,500 19,000 19,000 18,500 16,500 15,000 13,500 13,500 12,500 12,500 12,000 12,000 12,000 11,500 11,000 11,000 11,000 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,000 10,000
9,500 9,500 9,500 9,500 9,500 9,500 9,000 9,000 9,000 8,500 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 7,500 7,500 7,500 7,500
￼Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T.T. of Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Canal Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virgin Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Samoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL
3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500 3,000 7,500
￼$255,000 $626,000 I/ Rank order based upon the following formula using 1963 data:
Member's Population Per Capita Income of Member
Average Population of all Average Per Capita of all States
This is a summary of the original report submitted by Alfred Baxter and Associates. The full report is available upon request. It includes: background on method and limitations, hypothetical staffing organization and time-phased staff growth with staff salaries, estimated high, medium and low biennial budgets phased over a five step growth period, background on the financing plan, and assumptions and calculations relating to the estimation of non-salary costs.
￼State and Leg. session (*-budget session in even no. yrs. except Louisiana)
Alabama – odd
Alaska – annual
Amer. Samoa – annual Arizona– annual
Arkansas – odd
California – annual (*) Colorado – annual (*) Connecticut – odd Delaware – annual (*) Florida – odd
Georgia – annual
Hawaii – annual (*)
Idaho – odd
Illinois – odd
Indiana – odd
Iowa – odd
Kansas – annual (*) Kentucky – even Louisiana – annual
Maine – odd
Maryland – annual Massachusetts – annual Michigan – annual Minnesota – odd Mississippi – even Missouri – odd
Montana – odd
Nebraska – odd
Nevada – odd
New Hampshire – odd New Jersey – annual
New Mexico – annual (*) New York – annual North Carolina – odd North Dakota – odd Ohio – odd
Oklahoma – odd
Oregon – odd Pennsylvania – annual (*) Puerto Rico – annual Rhode Island – annual South Carolina – annual South Dakota – annual (*) Tennessee – odd
Texas – odd
Utah – odd
Vermont – odd
Virginia – even
Virgin Islands – annual Washington – odd
West Virginia – annual(*)
Initial fee (from entry to Dec. 31, 1967)
Paid Paid Paid Paid Paid Paid Paid
$5,000 Paid $6,000 Paid Paid Paid Paid $6,000 Paid $4,000 Paid Paid $4,000 Paid $6,000 $6,000 Paid
-0- Paid $4,000 $4,000 $4,000 Paid Paid Paid Paid $5,000 Paid Paid Paid Paid $6,000 Paid Paid Paid $3,000 Paid Paid Paid Paid
-0- Paid Paid Paid
1/2 yr. Fee (from Jan. 1, 1968 to June 30, 1968)
$ 5,250 3,750 3,750 4,500 4,750 11,000 4,750 5,250 4,500 7,500 6,000 4,000 3,750 9,750 6,750 5,250 5,000 5,250 5,500 4,000 5,750 6,750 9,250 5,500 4,750 6,250 4,000 4,500 4,000 4,000 8,250 4,000 11,000 6,250 3,750 9,500 5,000 4,750 10,000 5,250 4,250 4,750 3,750 5,500 9,500 4,000 3,750 6,000 3,750 5,250 4,750
full yr. Fee (from July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969)
$10,500 7,500 7,500 9,000 9,500 22,000 9,500 10,500 9,000 15,000 12,000 8,000 7,500 19,500 13,500 10,500 10,000 10,500 11,000 8,000 11,500 13,500 18,500 11,000 9,500 12,500 8,000 9,000 8,000 8,000 16,500 8,000 22,000 12,500 7,500 19,000 10,000 9,500 20,000 10,500 8,500 9,500 7,500 11,000 19,000 8,000 7,500 12,000 7,500 10,500
Should Appropriate 1967 Session
$15,750 3,750 3,750 4,500 14,250 11,000 4,750 20,750 4,500 28,500 6,000 4,000 11,250 29,250 26,250 15,750 9,000
-0- 5,500 16,000 5,750 12,750 15,250 16,500
-0- 18,750 16,000 17,500 16,000 12,000 8,250 4,000 11,000 23,750 11,250 28,500 5,000 14,250 16,000 5,250 4,250 4,750 6,750 16,500 28,500 12,000 11,250
Should Appropriate 1968 Session
-0- $ 7,500 7,500 9,000
-0- 22,000 9,500
-0- 12,000 8,000
-0- -0- -0- -0-
10,000 21,000 11,000
-0- 11,500 13,500 18,500
-0- -0- -0- -0- -0-
16,500 8,000 22,000
-0- -0- -0-
20,000 10,500 8,500 9,500 7,500
-0- -0- -0- -0-
What Each State Should Appropriate for Membership
17,750 -0- 9,500 4,750 9,500
￼Wisconsin – odd Paid 6,000 Wyoming – odd Paid 3,750
12,000 18,000 -0- 7,500 11,250 -0-
￼Membership – Education Commission of the States
in order of adherence as of January 1, 1967
1. Arkansas ............................................................................ Legislation
2. Virgin Islands ................................................................... Legislation
3. Hawaii................................................................................ Legislation
4. New Jersey ........................................................................ Legislation
5. Minnesota ............................................................... Executive Order
6. Illinois ...................................................................... Executive Order
7. Texas........................................................................Executive Order
8. New Hampshire.....................................................Executive Order
9. New Mexico ..................................................................... Legislation
11. Oregon .................................................................... Executive Order
12. Ohio.........................................................................Executive Order
13. Idaho........................................................................Executive Order
18. West Virginia..........................................................Executive
19. Kentucky................................................................ Executive
20. Louisiana ................................................................. Executive
24. Colorado .................................................................Executive Order
25. Missouri...................................................................Executive Order
26. Alabama ..................................................................Executive Order
28. North Dakota.........................................................Executive Order
29. Iowa.........................................................................Executive Order
32. Tennessee................................................................Executive Order
33. American Samoa....................................................Executive Order
36. Arizona .................................................................... Executive Order
38. Georgia....................................................................Executive Order
Order Order Order Order Order Order
￼Membership – Education Commission of the States
in Alphabetical Order as of January 1967
American Samoa Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Delaware Georgia
Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Minnesota Missouri
New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Dakota Ohio
Oklahoma Oregon Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Texas
Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming