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Promotes Identification for Development: Strategic Framework, World Bank
Promoted in ID4D Identification for Development
Start Date 2016-00-00
Notes Identification for Development Strategic Framework January 25, 2016 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.....................................................................................................................................2 I. IDENTIFICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT: A GLOBAL AGENDA................................................................4 A. THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE.............................................................................................................................4 B. OPPORTUNITIES.........................................................................................................................................4 C. CHALLENGES AND RISKS TO BE MITIGATED ......................................................................................................6 D. KEY PRINCIPLES .........................................................................................................................................8 E. KEY ENABLERS............................................................................................................................................9 1. Good Governance and Institutional Capacity.................................................................................9 2. Legal and regulatory frameworks ................................................................................................10 3. Technology standards and interoperability frameworks..............................................................11 4. Public-Private Partnerships...........................................................................................................11 II. ID4D AGENDA: ROLE OF THE WORLD BANK GROUP AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS......................12 A. LINK TO THE WBG TWIN GOALS AND SDG TARGETS .....................................................................................12 B. BUILDING ON PREVIOUS WBG EFFORTS ......................................................................................................13 C. VALUE PROPOSITION OF THE WORLD BANK GROUP.......................................................................................13 III. ID4D: FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION.................................................................................................14 A. ID4D: GLOBAL THOUGHT LEADERSHIP ........................................................................................................15 B. ID4D: GLOBAL CONVENING ......................................................................................................................15 C. ID4D: COUNTRY LEVEL APPROACH.............................................................................................................16 1. Assessment and Roadmap............................................................................................................17 2. Dialogue and Design.....................................................................................................................17 3. Implementation............................................................................................................................18 4. Regional Approaches....................................................................................................................19 5. Monitoring and Evaluation...........................................................................................................19 ANNEX 1: AGREED TERMINOLOGY....................................................................................................21 ANNEX 2: COUNTRY EXAMPLES .....................................................................................................................23 ANNEX 3: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ...............................................................................................................26 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................30 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Need for Identity Producing proof of identity is a simple everyday matter for millions of people around the world. But for approximately 1.5 billion people, the majority of them living in Asia and Africa, the inability to prove their identity cuts them off from accessing basic services and rights. Evidence shows that individuals who lack birth registration and official forms of identification are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries. In some countries, a woman with no identity cannot open a bank account. Her wages and government benefits are deposited in her husband’s account, to be used and dispersed at his discretion. In other countries, a child with no birth certificate cannot gain admission to school without proof of age. People with no identity are unable to access educational opportunities, financial services, health and social welfare benefits. Further, these people are disenfranchised, unable to have their say in their country’s electoral process. The recognition and authentication of an individual’s identity, together with associated rights, is therefore becoming a priority for governments around the world and is included as Sustainable Development Goal target 16.9: “free and universal legal identity, including birth registration by 2030.” It is also key to the attainment of many other SDG goals. Identification systems have three overarching outcome goals from a development perspective:  Inclusion and access to essential services such as health care and education, electoral rights, financial services, and social safety net programs  Effective and efficient administration of public services, transparent policy decisions and improved governance—particularly to reduce duplication and waste  More accurate measure of development progress in areas such as reduction in maternal and infant mortality 21st century digital technologies, including biometrics and other forms, are providing a unique opportunity to leapfrog the traditional, paper-based approaches to build a robust and efficient identification system at a scale previously not as achievable. Seizing these opportunities offered by fresh approaches and technological advances requires political commitment, a supportive legal framework, mobilization of financial and human resources, and, crucially, the trust of each country’s residents. Incentives, technology, financial support, and reforms will all be critical in achieving tangible results. The Identification for Development Initiative (ID4D) Recognizing the transformational potential of modern, 21st century identification systems for the delivery of basic services to the poor, the World Bank Group (WBG) launched the Identification for Development (ID4D) agenda in 2014. To enable access to services and rights for all, the initiative will support progress toward identification systems using 21st century solutions. It will bring global knowledge and expertise to bear across multiple sectors and countries to tackle this fundamental development challenge. It also will engage operationally in this area, collaborating with development partners, donors, and governments to provide unified technical and financial support to low- and middle-income countries. The ID4D agenda supports the achievement of the World Bank’s two overarching goals: ending extreme poverty by 2030 and promoting shared prosperity. The World Bank has invested both technical expertise and financial resources to launch ID4D and help client countries achieve the goal of universal legal identity. Given the many potential applications spanning different sectors and involving both public and private entities, implementing the ID4D agenda requires a strong dialogue among stakeholders, advocacy 3 and awareness raising, and selecting the most effective entry points. The World Bank is well positioned to facilitate this agenda, given its global reach (over 120 offices worldwide), multisectoral approach and technical expertise (Senior Leadership, technical specialist global practices and other groups are on board), and ongoing country dialogue and engagement with governments which provides a useful entry point for the ID4D initiative. Further, the WBG has a range of financial instruments (IDA/IBRD, donor funded ASA, and RAS) to support governments in the implementation of an identification system. In addition, rigorous impact evaluation of the ID4D agenda on development outcomes will allow all stakeholders to ascertain a complete results chain. ID4D Framework for Action The ID4D agenda and call to work with other partners is built on the three pillars of:  Thought Leadership: While several analytical pieces on identification systems have already been written, to avoid duplication of effort, the ID4D partnership platform can agree on key thought leadership pieces required to advance the agenda. New research could be commissioned on the implications of financial inclusion, the role of unique identification in refugee crisis, case studies on implementation of ID systems in different countries, and so on.  Global Convening: A shared view of the principles, minimum standards, and necessary complements is an aspirational goal. ID4D is planning to launch a multi-stakeholder platform and create partnerships with other development partners, foundations, standard setting bodies, public sector, private sector associations and others to develop an inclusive multistakeholder dialogue and consultation process to reach this desired goal. ID4D will also provide a platform for South-South learning events for countries to share and learn from one another.  Country and regional engagement: Country experience shows that that there is no single approach to improving identification systems. Much depends on the specific development problem to be addressed, the state of the existing system, and the costs and benefits of a new approach. Although ID4D helps single countries establish the best approach, it is also focusing on regional approaches in Asia and Africa. ID4D will reach out to regional bodies, UN agencies, think tanks and the private sector to ensure that identification systems are developed in an integrated, interoperable manner. Strategic Framework This strategic framework paper sets out to help key stakeholders share a common understanding of the challenges, opportunities and risks in the first section. The second section discusses the link to broader SDG goals and WBG experience and value proposition. The final section discusses the approach involved in rolling out the ID4D agenda. This is a particularly good time for the World Bank to increase its engagement in this important area of development. In light of the fast-progressing discussions about the post-2015 global development agenda, the timing is critical. Therefore, we are reaching out to a range of stakeholders to engage with us in this ambitious ID4D effort with their insights, expertise and financing to operationalize the strategic framework outlined in this document. Together, we can help countries produce cost-effective, sustainable and trusted identification systems able to deliver development-related benefits across the population. 4 I. IDENTIFICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT: A GLOBAL AGENDA A. THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE There are an estimated 1.5 billion people who do not have a government issued and recognized document as a proof of their identity1 . The problem disproportionately affects children and women, from poor rural areas in Africa and Asia. Being able to prove one’s identity is more than a convenience; it is needed to participate fully in society and exercise one’s human rights. Identification is indispensable for ensuring access to educational opportunities, financial services, health and social welfare benefits, economic development, as well as increasing electoral participation. Identification is a key enabler for achieving development outcomes, because universal population registration gives individuals the documentation they need to secure recognition of their legal identity and their ensuing rights. Identification—whether through civil registries or other national identification systems—have three overarching outcome goals from a development perspective:  Inclusion and access to essential services such as health care and education, electoral rights, financial services, and social safety net programs  Effective and efficient administration of public services, transparent policy decisions and improved governance—particularly to reduce duplication and waste.  More accurate measure of development progress in areas such as reduction in maternal and infant mortality and ending epidemics (e.g. AIDS) given the role universal civil registration plays for improving vital statistics. Despite these compelling motivations, civil registration and identification systems reach only parts of the world’s population. For developing countries, identification is a daunting challenge. Half of all low- to middle-income countries lack functioning systems to register births and other life events, which is ideally the foundation for official identification. In South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa respectively, only 39 percent and 44 percent of children have births registered.2 Additionally, where there are identification programs, they are often fragmented across several agencies and for silo uses. The recognition and authentication of an individual’s identity, together with associated rights, is therefore becoming a priority for governments around the world and is included as Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 16.9 of “free and universal legal identity, including birth registration by 2030.” It is also key to the attainment of many other SDG goals. B. OPPORTUNITIES Recognizing the transformational potential of modern, 21stcentury solutions, with advances in identification technology (both digital and biometric) and dramatically falling costs, there is an opportunity to leapfrog traditional paper-based approaches and provide unique identity to populations of 1 The WBG ID4D global dataset, as of January 2016. This number is an initial broad estimate based on available information for 198 countries. For countries where there are no reliable and timely data on people in possession of IDs available from government web sites or reports estimates are produced using data from other foundational or functional registers, mainly birth registration data and data from the electoral registers. 2 UNICEF 2013, “Every Child’s Birth Right” 5 hundreds of millions with low error and lower costs.3 Mobile devices also provide promising solutions to enroll and authenticate individuals with a unique identification in remote and rural areas. Identification can be a critical enabler for achieving some key development outcomes including:  Financial Inclusion: Less than half of all adults in the poorest 40 percent of households have a bank account; approximately 375 million unbanked adults in developing countries (18 percent) are constrained by not having the necessary ID documentation4 . Accessible, robust, and verifiable ID systems can facilitate the Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements of providers and expand the use of financial services. For example, the Reserve Bank of India approved the use of the Aadhaar individual identification number issued by the Government of India as a proof of identity to meet the regulatory KYC requirements of Jan Dhan basic savings accounts. As a result, approximately 200 million bank accounts were opened5 .  Gender Equality: Women often struggle to assert their rights and access to services due to lack of personal identification. Lacking their own bank accounts, their government benefits and wages are deposited into their husbands’ accounts. Birth and marriage registration can help enforce minimum age of marriage legislation and so help combat child marriage. Registration and legal proof of identity contributes to women’s ability to inherit property and claim their property rights in the event of marriage dissolution or widowhood. In Pakistan, the computerized ID system provided direct access of cash transfers to women for the first time. Evaluations showed that, as a result, households spent more on nutrition and health, and that women’s confidence increased as did their importance in household decision making.6  Access to Health Services: Increased access to health services and universal coverage requires countries to identify the beneficiaries. Additionally, more accurate vital statistics support efforts to better monitor health targets and better track the provision of care (such as vaccinations, HIV/AIDs and TB treatment). In Thailand, the launch of the universal coverage scheme led to the development of a unique identification number which is used to access health care services and for monitoring7 . The subsequent adoption of smart cards has decreased fraud, human error and overhead costs. Gabon, for example, is implementing national health insurance plans with authentication of beneficiaries with fingerprints and smartcards at points of service.8  Social Safety Net: 870 million people living in extreme poverty do not have access to any kind of social assistance program. Accurate identification of the poor and vulnerable enables efficient, well-coordinated social protection programs (including those for humanitarian and emergency relief) as well as cost-effective, secure, and convenient digital transfers. Such programs can be 3 Gelb and Clark, “Identification for Development: the Biometrics Revolution” 4 Global Findex database, provides in-depth data on how individuals save, borrow, make payments, and manage risks. Collected by the World Bank in partnership with the Gallup World Poll and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Global Findex is based on interviews with about 150,000 adults in over 140 countries. For more about the Global Findex database, see the website: http://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/globalfindex. 5 http://www.pmjdy.gov.in/home 6 Dahan and Hanmer. The Identification for Development (ID4D) Agenda: Its Potential for Empowering Women and Girls 7 ILO Social Protection in Action, Sept 2015. “A National Health Insurance Beneficiary Registry based on National Identification Numbers” 8 Gelb and Clarke, “Identification for Development: the Biometrics Revolution” 6 more effective with precise targeting and robust authentication of the intended beneficiaries. For example, Pakistan provided flood relief using the national identification database to make payments to 1.5 million families. India’s fuel subsidy program provided cash transfers to Aadhaar-linked bank accounts for the purchase of liquefied petroleum gas cylinders, which saved about $1 billion per year9 .  Improved Governance: Authentication protocols based on national identity registers also contribute to making government institutions more accountable and transparent. Without such an approach, the risks of leakages, fraud and corruption are high, leading to diversion of transfers, pensions and other entitlements. Unique identity tokens, or cards, have sometimes been able to reduce fraud and save money. For example, biometrically enrolling civil servants and eliminating ‘ghost workers’ and ‘double dippers’ through Nigeria’s Integrated Personnel and Payroll Information System, saved N12 billion (approximately US$74 million) in the first phase and eliminated 43,000 ghost workers as of July 2011. Liberia’s Employee Biometric Identification and Records System (EBIRS) reduced payroll by 10 percent to 15 percent. 10 In other cases, biometric identification has been used for monitoring employee attendance, as in India, where it was used to reduce teacher absenteeism.11 C. CHALLENGES AND RISKS TO BE MITIGATED While the opportunities abound, so do the challenges and risks associated with the implementation of this global agenda—from political economy risks, to technology and implementation risks. Close examination of the legal and regulatory enabling environment (both existing laws and any reforms needed to support ID) is needed focused on the types, extent, and use of information collected under an ID scheme; how to safeguard the privacy and security of personal data; and how to craft new primary legislation or rules to avoid unintended consequences such as inadvertent exclusions, onerous mandates that could deter individuals from accessing services, or increased rent seeking involving registration or certificates. Political Economy Risks  Privacy Risk: Key risks may stem from a failure to secure data about persons, the inappropriate sharing or use of data, discriminatory use of data against certain individual or groups, and the failure to ensure long-term integrity and durability of the data. Privacy risks can include (a) incorrect or inaccurate data, leading to mistaken identity or unjust treatment; (b) “function creep,” whereby data collected for one purpose are used for others to which the individual concerned has not consented; (c) profiling, through linking data registers in unauthorized or inappropriate ways, including for surveillance purposes; (d) unauthorized or inappropriate access, use or disclosure of information including, including intra- agency, inter-governmental, and third party and public disclosure. Biometrics raises some particular privacy issues—e.g., through the remote acquisition of facial prints without the knowledge of the subject and through the recording of fingerprints and DNA, which may be used for other collateral purposes without the consent of the individual.  To mitigate this risk, a robust legal and regulatory enabling environment (supported by appropriate technical ICT systems and capacity) is critical to provide a transparent and cohesive framework for the collection, management, and use of personal data. Legislation that provides for the protection of personal information and privacy, including data security 9 Barnwal 2015. Curbing Leakage in Public Programs with Biometric Identification Systems: Evidence from India’s Fuel Subsidies. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/~pb2442/subsidyLeakageUID.pdf 10 Gabriel, 2000 through Alan Gelb/Julia Clarke’s paper. 11 Gelb and Clarke 7 and data use, is therefore essential, not only for system integrity but also to promote trust and confidence in the system so that it will be widely used. The World Bank’s ID4D program can help to ensure that countries include strong and balanced individual and personal privacy protections as part of their legal and regulatory enabling environments that promote ID systems.  Require institutions responsible for the ID platform and other institutions accessing or in any ways involved in the operation of the ID platforms to institute appropriate IT Governance and IT risk management practices.  Social Exclusion: Although the development purpose of issuing identification is inclusive in nature, an ill-designed approach or lack of a robust legal enabling environment (e.g. cost, distance and time to register, discriminatory practices including variable impacts on different sections of the population) can lead to exclusion. For example, in Kenya, to increase the number of children with documentation, a recent policy requires students to provide birth certificates in order to sit exams.12 And in several countries the social stigma associated with being an unmarried mother has been documented as a barrier to birth registration of children.13 Although often well intentioned, such requirements, if not well-designed and implemented, can result in a reduction access for the most marginalized people. Some countries have made special efforts to extend registration to poor and rural citizens, as in the case of the Peruvian civil registration and identification agency, RENIEC’s outreach to indigenous communities.14 Others have taken specific steps to include sexual minorities including a third gender category in national registers; both Nepal and India have allowed people to register as a gender other than male or female, recognizing gender identity. India also realized the problem and practical challenge of reliance on another identity document as a pre-requisite for issuance of unique identity; and accordingly introduced the concept of introducer to help the excluded population get an identification, even in the absence of any other identity documents. In other cases, the tightening of identification requirements has the potential to worsen the problem of statelessness. Registration and certification rules may also be a source of exclusion, for example, in the context of voter ID requirements. Under the cover of "electoral integrity" certain segments of the electorate may be disenfranchised.  To mitigate this risk, a detailed examination of the existing legal and regulatory enabling environment is needed, focusing especially on laws which convey or deny rights. Programs need to be thoughtfully designed and rules founded in primary legislation, specifying the rights and obligations of issuers and users, to avoid unintended consequences such as inadvertent exclusions, onerous mandates that could deter individuals from accessing services, or increased rent seeking involving registration or certificates. Technology Risks  Complex IT systems, vendor lock-in risks: These can result in substantial costs increases, reduced flexibility and sustainability, a system design which is not fit for purpose nor suitable to meet policy and development objectives. Detailed appraisal of local context and capacity is essential including prior experiences with implementing IT systems. It is important to focus on design and implementation of sustainable digital infrastructure that can reach remote areas; 12 UNHCR 2014a. 13 See for example Harbitz and Tamargo 2009 for Guatemala, Ecuador and Bolivia; Sumner 2015 for Indonesia. 14 Gelb and Raghavan, forthcoming. See also Gelb and Clark 2013 for the case of residents of Haitian extraction in the Dominican Republic. 8 ensure interoperability and trusted authentication protocols for data exchange among different services and solution providers; and ensure data security and personal privacy, particularly in the use of biometrics, as well as the long-term accessibility and security of identity records.  Mitigation can include development and implementation of robust IT procurement guidelines, open standards (where appropriate) and common technology standards and frameworks to ensure that the unique national ID system is built as a solid foundation upon which an array of actors (government agencies, businesses, and citizens) can participate—each bringing a building block to a scalable platform for improving service delivery.  Cyber security risks: In addition to the data protection measures addressed above, reliance on digital, Internet-based systems expose those systems and underlying infrastructure (both the hardware and software) and the data that reside and travel over them to potential misuse and destruction through data theft, fraud, manipulation or hacking, ‘buggy’ software, lack of capacity in understanding, using or maintaining systems and data, and even acts of war or nature. Vulnerable infrastructure, systems and data will erode user confidence making use of the systems less attractive.  Mitigation measures of these cyber risks start with pro-security policies covering prevention, resilience and restoration and ensuring that the proper incentives are in place for the various stakeholders to appreciate and manage these risks. Typically, these policies are translated into laws (e.g., cyber crime and data protection) and institutions (such as CERTs) to ensure the protection of infrastructure, systems and data. Human and institutional capacity building are also key enablers. But it is important to balance the security measures for privacy (data protection) as well as freedom of expression rights. Implementation risks  Lack of political leadership and inter-ministerial silos: The target of delivering robust ID credentials to everyone is an ambitious one, requiring vision and leadership. In most countries, there are a range of registration and identification efforts hosted by different ministries, (e.g Ministry of Interior, Ministry of ICT, Ministry of Health, etc.). Silo approaches and vested ministerial interests make it difficult for ideal system integration. In countries such as India, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) reported directly to the Prime Minister and was charged with strong leadership; without this it’s doubtful whether Aadhaar would have reached its current scale of 940 million issued unique identification numbers in just five years.  Mitigation measures could include development of a ‘social cabinet’ across the range of ministries involved, including strong dialogue and leadership from the top. A strong policy commitment is needed which should guide program design and implementation. Rules governing program implementation should also be set out in legislation to provide guidance to government ministries, issuers and users alike, minimizing risks of duplication, overlapping and conflicting mandates, technology incompatibility, inadequate protection of individual rights, monitoring and enforcement, etc. D. KEY PRINCIPLES The pathway to a robust and accessible identification system which enables several of the key development outcomes outlined above, should ideally pursue the following principles: 9  Universal coverage and non-discriminatory issuance of nationwide identity number and documentation  Free birth registration and first birth certificate in accordance with relevant (international conventions and) national laws for birth registration  Affordability of identification and authentication processes and enabled services  Interoperability of civil registration and ID systems to avoid duplication and waste; enable interfaces for use by other stakeholders to leverage the ID systems  Technology/vendor neutrality  Sustainability of investments through adequate business models  Robust legal and regulatory enabling environment which promotes trust in the design, implementation and use of ID, especially data security, personal privacy and personal data protection, non-discrimination and inclusion (with a focus on the most marginalized).  Transparency and openness with mechanisms to engage stakeholders inside an outside government, including the private sector and NGOs In order to advance this critical development agenda, a shared agreement on the key principles is a desired outcome. These principles will be discussed broadly with country governments, private sector, standards bodies and other development agencies over the course of the next few months and will continue to be refined. E. KEY ENABLERS The continued operation and sustainability of the ID4D programs depend on the existence (or establishment) of a set of key enablers, as follows:  Good governance and institutional capacity  Legal and regulatory frameworks  Technology standards and interoperability frameworks  Public-private partnerships (PPPs) 1. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY Identification systems make way for more transparent and efficient policy decisions and can improve governance. However, a critical element of a well-functioning and effective identification system, is the choice of governance arrangements (including whether this has the highest level of political support) and effective institutional capacity. Countries have a range of institutional options (outlined in Annex 3); but regardless of the choice, there should be a holistic approach across the government agencies and institutions responsible for civil registries and identification systems. The Digital Identity toolkit outlines a range of institutional governance arrangements; however, further assessment across country examples could provide additional insight into the key governance and institutional ingredients necessary. For example, strong provisions for the effective governance of the agency involved should be put in place and the responsibility of the agency clearly defined, and balanced and managed with the aid of other government agencies, the private sector and identity stakeholders. Additionally, as the role of any 10 organization that deals with identity grows in importance over time, a robust, multilayer institutional governance structure is needed.15 2. LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS Sound public administration, the delivery of core government services, and the smooth functioning of business applications and commerce all depend on robust means of identification. The digitization of registration systems is leading to new lessons on handling the risks. Secure and confidential sharing of personal information between government agencies may be appropriate and desirable for well-defined purposes. The legal and regulatory framework is not only about protecting citizens’ rights after their identities are registered and the security of systems and data. More importantly, it reflects who is entitled to what (who is a citizen; who can get social security; who is entitled to free health care) and what ID (if any) people need to produce to claim their entitlement). The legal and regulatory framework needs to reconcile the tension between freedom of information, transparency, and government accountability, on one hand, and the need to protect personal information and cyber security, on the other. The primary legislation ideally sets the foundational rules for a robust and sustainable identification scheme, based on a legal framework reflecting the following key principles:16 • Free flow of information to ensure that accurate information is captured and disseminated in a timely manner, supporting effective policy making, efficient resource allocation, and accurate evaluation and monitoring • Transparency to ensure that registries are implemented and managed pursuant to clear rules that promote accountability for the fair handling and use of information • Individual privacy rights to protect individuals, permit them to access their personal information, and where necessary, to challenge and correct any inaccuracies • Public safety and security (including cyber security) to support citizens’ identity and civil status, without threatening the safety of individuals who might be put at risk by the intentional or inadvertent disclosure of personal information • Sustainability to ensure that personal identification needed to protect individual’s identity and rights is available and authentic over the long-term Trust that the government will deal responsibly with personal information is an important factor in ensuring proper administration and user take-up of the scheme. If the government allows, or does not restrict, the use of the information for other purposes, citizens may be harmed or feel aggrieved by the loss of privacy. This is damaging both to good public administration and the ability of the government to promote the use of the civil register. If citizens no longer trust the government to keep personal information confidential, the distrust may lead them to either withhold information or to supply wrong or inaccurate information. Therefore, legislative measures to ensure confidentiality and protect against misuse are critical, among other reasons, to promote trust and confidence in the system—maximizing the likelihood that the public will support and comply with obligations to provide complete and accurate information in a timely manner. 15 Digital Identity Toolkit, World Bank 2014 16 The OECD Fair Information Principles provide a widely used framework to harmonize data privacy legislation: see http://www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/oecdguidelinesontheprotectionofprivacyandtransborderflowsofpersonal data.htm and Gellman 2013 11 In every case, however, it is important to consider whether the contemplated subject matter is appropriate for inclusion in a subordinate instrument, whether it is authorized by the empowering statute, and whether its promulgation satisfies any statutory precedents. Although regulations and rules are attractive because they may be made quickly under delegated authority without submission to the lawmaking body, for these same reasons they also provide less certainty. It is important, therefore, that the primary legislation—and not a subordinate instrument—provide the rules for the protection of individual privacy. 3. TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS AND INTEROPERABILITY FRAMEWORKS The advent of new technologies in resource-constrained environments creates an enabling ground for developing more efficient and more effective information systems that furnish a platform for modernized, enhanced service delivery across all sectors of the economy. Recent advances in digital biometric identification technology and decreasing costs have created the opportunity for low- and middle-income countries to expand and strengthen their national identification systems. Biometrics is emerging as the core of national identification systems. And there are also risks attendant to relying on biometrics (unlike other forms of digital credentialing, once biometric credentials are compromised, they are compromised forever whereas passwords and other means of authentication can be replaced). All else being equal, we might expect the use of biometric technology to become more prevalent as income increases, but some countries had well-established legacy registration systems before the widespread use of this technology. We might therefore expect to see a technology leapfrog effect, much like the rapid expansion of cellular phone systems in poorer countries with inadequate fixed-line systems. As another indicator of modernization, we might also ask whether countries with more-developed ICT capabilities are more likely to have a biometric unique national ID system. However, some common technology standards and frameworks are needed to ensure that the unique national ID system is built on civil registration as a solid foundation upon which an array of actors (government agencies, businesses, and citizens) can participate—each bringing a building block to a scalable platform for improving service delivery. 4. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Public-private partnerships (PPPs) offer the potential for enabling governments, particularly those lacking in-house technology expertise, to deploy and sustain modern ID systems. Although many PPPs involving the technical management of online government service delivery already deploy different mechanisms for authenticating users’ identities before providing access to services, such partnerships do not yet extend to the management of unique national ID systems. However, some of the business models already employed in e-government PPPs, such as sharing of user transaction fees, can potentially be adapted for this purpose. This is already occurring in many jurisdictions for passport and driver’s license issuance, where citizens have historically been charged for such services. As in many areas of development, PPPs are important to the ID4D agenda because they provide financial and economic models to ensure sustainability and bolster usability of the systems put in place. 12 II. ID4D AGENDA: ROLE OF THE WORLD BANK GROUP AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS Recognizing the transformational potential of modern, 21st century identification systems for the delivery of basic services to the poor, the World Bank Group launched the Identification for Development (ID4D) agenda in 2014. The program aims to support progress toward identification systems using 21st century solutions that enable access to services and rights for all. It will bring global knowledge and expertise to bear across multiple sectors and countries to tackle this fundamental development challenge. It also will engage operationally in this area, collaborating with development partners, donors, and governments to provide unified technical and financial support to low- and middle-income countries. A. LINK TO THE WBG TWIN GOALS AND SDG TARGETS The ID4D agenda supports the achievement of the World Bank Group’s two overarching goals: ending extreme poverty by 2030 and promoting shared prosperity.17 Evidence shows that individuals who lack birth registration and ID are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries. Lack of such proof of identity cuts them off from many basic rights and services. Additionally, the importance of ID credentials to successful development places them within the post2015 agenda—specifically as one of the proposed SDG targets (16.9) but also as a key enabler of the efficacy of at least 10 other SDG targets in the following areas: • Social protection, including for the most vulnerable (SDG 1.3) • Assistance in dealing with shocks and disasters (SDG 1.5) • Access of the poor to economic resources, including property and finance (SDG 1.4) • Empowerment of women (SDG 5a and 5b) • Reducing the global maternal mortality ratio (SDG 3.1) • Ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5(SDG 3.2) • Ending the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combatting hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases. (SDG 3.3) • Improving energy efficiency and eliminating harmful energy subsidies (SDG 12c) • Reducing remittance costs (SDG 10c) • Reducing corruption (SDG 16.5) and fighting crime and terrorism (SDG 16a) Leaders worldwide have seen a new set of opportunities for modernizing their countries’ registration and identification systems, drawing on the ubiquity of ICTs and innovative approaches to assign unique national IDs to individuals and businesses alike. Seizing these opportunities requires political commitment, a supportive legal framework, mobilization of financial and human resources, and, critically, the trust of each country’s residents. Incentives, technology, foreign assistance, and reforms will all be critical in achieving tangible results.18 Robust identification systems therefore provide a 17 “Ending extreme poverty” refers to reducing the share of people living on less than US$1.25 per day to less than 3 percent of the global population by 2030. “Promoting shared prosperity” refers to improving the living standards of the bottom 40 percent of the population in every country. The World Bank Group further urges that the two goals be pursued in ways that sustainably secure the future of the planet and its resources, promote social inclusion, and limit the economic burdens that future generations inherit (World Bank 2013). 18 For a discussion on this point, see Dunning, Gelb, and Raghavan 2014. 13 powerful platform for enhanced service delivery across all sectors and are force multipliers in the fight against poverty. B. BUILDING ON PREVIOUS WBG EFFORTS This initiative was developed by building on the substantial work that preceded this effort—especially several complementary initiatives led by World Bank Group teams in collaboration with external partners and client counterparts: most notably, the Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) Scaling Up Plan, the Digital ID toolkit for Africa, the Universal Access by 2020 agenda and the Inter-Agency Social Protection Assessments (SPA) collaboration. The World Bank has financed more than 142 ID4D related investment projects (63 active, 23 pipeline, 56 closed) in over 70 countries over the last 30 years. Past World Bank identification projects have supported the development of the following applications:  Foundational (Legal) Registries: These ID systems such as Civil Registration (CR) and National ID (e-ID/Biometric) systems provide general identification for many official purposes.  Functional Registries (Administrative Databases): These systems are introduced in response to a demand for a particular service or transaction. These services can provide cash transfers, pensions, ration cards, health cards, and so on, each pertaining to a particular administrative registry. In some countries, the Bank is directly supporting the development of robust digital IDs, as in the case of Bangladesh. In Peru, Pakistan and Rwanda, the World Bank cash transfer projects included financing of enrolling eligible beneficiaries and were linked to national ID systems. However, only about 10 out of 63 active projects (16 percent) in 40 countries are related to legal (foundational) registries (civil registries and national ID), and other projects support functional registries (beneficiary IDs, taxpayer and business registries, civil service registries, etc.). In contrast to past initiatives, the World Bank Group’s new ID4D approach will involve projects designed and implemented as part of a systematic approach to the specific development problems that improved identification can alleviate on a country-specific basis. They may involve the development of multipurpose ID systems on a national scale or, at times, a modular approach depending on the specific country setting. In either event, they will emphasize systems that can be used across multiple sectors and applications. C. VALUE PROPOSITION OF THE WORLD BANK GROUP To assist client countries implement this vision, the World Bank Group has invested its own financial resources and technical expertise to launch the initiative in its first year. The World Bank Group is well positioned to advance the agenda, together with key development partners, given:  Global reach and engagement which allows lessons learned across individual country and regional examples  Multisectoral expertise (e.g. ICT, financial sector, social protection, PPP, governance, health, legal, gender and private sector specialists), including those with specific global technical expertise on aspects of identification. 14  Strong global footprint with presence on the ground across more than 120 offices, coupled with a small global program team and multisectoral working group: the ID4D initiative will leverage the multisectoral technical and country teams  Senior Leadership support across Global Practices and other groups (Transport & ICT; Governance; Health, Nutrition & Population; Social Protection & Labor, Finance & Markets; Gender; Legal Thematic Practice Group and Development Economics Data Group) to enforce a holistic view of the issues and an integrated approach to the solutions at the operational level; additionally, ID4D has received Senior Management Support as one of the five priority institutional initiatives.  Long term, ongoing country dialogue across several functions (e.g. cash transfer programs, civil service reform, financial inclusion). The ongoing operational and knowledge engagement with governments provides useful entry point for the ID4D initiative.  Ability to leverage a range of financial instruments for upstream global and country dialogue and accompanying Advisory Services and Analytics (ASA) can be coupled with IDA/IBRD financial resources (investment and development policy loans) for financing public investments in identification infrastructure. III. ID4D: FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION Coordination mechanisms at the global, regional, and national levels with development partners and other key stakeholders active in the ID4D space will help to ensure inclusive oversight and concerted global action. The global community must act together by aligning its actions in providing sustainable support for regions and countries to achieve ID4D goals and development outcomes. The ID4D initiative is engaging across the following three pillars: Thought Leadership, Global Convening, and Country Level Engagement and Operations. 15 A. ID4D: GLOBAL THOUGHT LEADERSHIP As a number of agencies and organizations are beginning to align on a common interest in this agenda, an ID4D global thought leadership platform could advance the understanding of this somewhat nascent development topic. Although there are several analytical pieces already commissioned by the World Bank, Center for Global Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Omidyar Network, and others, there are remaining questions and related topics which need to be further explored. Existing analytical pieces include:  Overall role of identification, key issues, architectures, business models (completed, CGD and ongoing, Omidyar)  Digital ID Toolkit (WB, completed)  Country Assessment guided – Identity Management Systems Analysis (IMSA) (WB, completed)  ID4D Global Database (WB, completed)  Evidence of Curbing Leakage in Public Programs with Biometric ID: India’s Fuel Subsidies (completed)  Impact on Financial Inclusion (planned, World Bank)  Role of private sector and PPP models in digital identification (planned, World Bank in partnership with private sector associations)  Legal and regulatory barriers for women to access identification (planned, World Bank)  Use cases for Aadhaar (planned, Omidyar)  Digital Identity (Privacy, Technology and Security) Issue Analysis (planned, Omidyar)  Non-State Actors in Digital Identity (planned, Omidyar) Rather than duplicating efforts across interested agencies and organizations, a partnership platform can form a strong network across a handful of development agencies, foundations, and think tanks. The network can agree on the key thought leadership pieces required to advance the agenda. Additional topics for further exploration:  Impact assessments to provide a more robust articulation of the case for an integrated approach; the ID4D program could assess the implications for financial inclusion, gender, effective targeting of social safety nets, health access, etc. An impact evaluation partnership could begin with 3 to 6 impact assessments (mix of randomized and simpler methods)  Identification in the Context of the Global Refugee Crisis  The cost of an undocumented life for health, social safety programs, education, financial inclusion  Guidance and Assessment of Institutional Arrangements  Additional Best Practices and Case Studies around specific topics (e.g. including hard to reach populations and frequently excluded groups; access to identity and gender equality; biometrics). B. ID4D: GLOBAL CONVENING A shared view of the key principles, minimum standards, and legal and regulatory frameworks for identity management is an aspirational goal. ID4D can play a convening role and engage with standard setting bodies, development partners, foundations, private sector associations, UN agencies, financial sector players and others to develop an inclusive multi-stakeholder dialogue and consultation process to reach this desired goal, including through the following ways: 16  A joint discussion paper between the World Bank, Groupe Speciale Mobile Association19 (GSMA), and Secure Identity Alliance20 (SIA) will draft a set of principles to be discussed at consultative meetings over a span of several months with a range of stakeholders (i.e., in February 2016 at a closed consultative event at the GSMA World Mobile Congress where 90,000 private and public sector representatives gather annually. This will be the first of a series of consultations to be open to a broader set of stakeholders across public sector, private sector and development partners; the second such consultation will likely be in Washington DC in Spring 2016 and others to be determined.  Building on the identity management legislation recently enacted by the European Union, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has agreed to undertake a project to develop international legal rules for identity management. A process of consultation and drafting will begin with a colloquium to be hosted at the World Bank and co-sponsored by the Open Identity Exchange and the American Bar Association Identity Management Legal Task Force. In addition, ID4D can provide a platform for South-South dialogue to share lessons and knowledge across countries. Examples include:  Webinars linking countries to others who have successfully implemented digital identification systems (e.g. one held in January 2016 linking 12 countries to learn about Aadhaar’s experience)  The World Bank/IMF Spring Meetings in 2016 which could provide a platform for countries to share their respective experiences;  Other events (e.g. in May 2016 at the ID4Africa21 event in Rwanda) with a focus on Africa, organized yearly and which convenes governments and regional bodies across Africa C. ID4D: COUNTRY LEVEL APPROACH Country experience shows that that there is no single approach to improving identification systems. Much depends on the specific development problem to be addressed, the state of the existing system, and the costs and benefits of a new approach. Depending on the country, the approach may involve a top-down process to create a legal identity or registry from the get-go that all individual programs could eventually use, thus delivering multiple services to individuals who have unique national identification systems. In other cases, the path may involve building on a good functional ID developed for a particular purpose (such as social safety nets or financial access programs). Based on such existing entry points, ID4D efforts could broaden their use and coverage over time. An example can be found in Bangladesh, where through a national unique ID number database, both the public and private sectors plan to deliver a number of services to the population. Similarly, the ongoing ID system assessment in Morocco identified myriad programs that resulted in the ID system not fully 19 Groupe Speciale Mobile Association represents the interests of mobile operators worldwide—nearly 800 operators with more than 250 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem, including handset and device makers, software companies, equipment providers and Internet companies. 20 The Secure Identity Alliance supports sustainable worldwide economic growth and prosperity through the development of trusted digital identities and the widespread adoption of secure eServices. 21 ID4Africa serves as a multistakeholder movement that promotes the transparent and responsible adoption of digital identity in the service of development in Africa. The aim is to share experience and establish real world standards that set the correct expectations for what is involved in launching successful identity programs. 17 meeting the country’s identification needs. Government agencies continue to operate under different ID programs that are not harmonized. As a result, all programs that depend on individual or household identification, including social protection programs, suffer from an increased administrative burden arising from the lack of a reliable unified system. The Government of Morocco is actively engaged in a dialogue with World Bank teams and other development partners to explore opportunities to strengthen and integrate the existing systems. The rollout of ID4D efforts includes the following stages: 1. ASSESSMENT AND ROADMAP Before rolling out any ID4D program, interested governments, with support from the World Bank and other development partners, would assess the country’s existing ID systems, forging a holistic view of the ID system that is consistent with the ID4D approach. In this context, several dimensions of ID system assessment could be considered, including the following dimensions currently captured by the standard Identity Management System Analysis (IMSA) guidance tool: 1. Legal and regulatory framework for civil registration and identification, 2. Accessibility: Barriers and obstacles to timely and universal registration 3. Institutional and administrative robustness, 4. Use and management of technology, and 5. Interoperability and interconnectivity of the legal and functional registries. The resulting country assessment would present the areas of improvement of a particular system that would subsequently provide a baseline for a roadmap/action plan that addresses gaps and allows for progress to be systematically monitored. 2. DIALOGUE AND DESIGN Given the many potential applications spanning different sectors and involving both public and private entities, implementing the ID4D agenda requires a strong dialogue among stakeholders, advocacy and awareness raising, and selecting the most effective entry points. The multisectoral applications of identification require systematic engagement–across ministries and agencies, across public and private sector, and including citizens and civil society organizations–to determine the most appropriate design feature for the national identification system. Implementation, Outreach and Communication Design and Dialogue Assessment and Roadmap 18 Some design dimensions which need to be considered, although not exhaustive, include:  Strategic Pathway: When designing an identification architecture, there are a number of considerations based on country context (needs, state of civil registration system, budget, timeline, political will). In particular, there could be tradeoffs such as the focus on foundational to functional or functional to foundational, along with a discussion of an integrated vs modular approach.  Institutional Arrangements: The most appropriate governance structure, including which entity champions the effort, is a critical design feature. The key coordinating agency or ministry needs the capacity, legal backing and political will to serve as an effective champion and implementer. Several options include autonomous with direct cabinet or executive level reporting, autonomous governed by a Board representing stakeholders, or an agency or directorate of an existing ministry.  Technology: The strategy to deploy technology needs to consider a range of dimensions, including cost, capacity, interoperability, usage, security, and long-term viability. A digital identity includes the following technology-based solutions which could be considered: biometrics; electronic database; electronic credentials; mobile, online and offline applications. As technology continues to advance, other options will likely become available.  Intentionality of Inclusion: Lessons also include the importance of working with civil society organizations and deploying new approaches to reach people frequently excluded, for example, lower castes, women, disabled and indigenous peoples. 3. 4. IMPLEMENTATION The World Bank Group has a range of financial instruments (IDA/IBRD, donor-funded ASA, and RAS) to support governments in the implementation of an identification system. The support could include the following menu of support interventions:  Assisting governments in inter-ministerial dialogue and formation of a multisectoral approach across ministries and government agencies to avoid a fragmented digital identification ecosystem;  Providing institutional capacity building and advising on the merits of various institutional arrangements;  Developing appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks, including data protection and privacy requirements;  Leveraging relevant technology standards and interoperability frameworks; supporting open architecture anchored on modularity and open standards; supporting procurement of technology, in particular capacity building of the public sector to develop technology specifications;  Designing sustainable business models of ID systems, including public-private partnership (PPP) models;  Financing the infrastructure required for the public sector (e.g. de novo national ID system, integration platform) as well as streamlining the process flow needed to support service delivery;  Ensuring that monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, including impact assessments, are built into the design of ID4D projects. 19 5. REGIONAL APPROACHES To achieve the ambitious goals of the ID4D initiative, the WBG and broader development community is considering ways to accelerate the pace of developing robust civil registration and identification systems in client countries. While ID4D will continue to advance single-country engagements, it will also explore regional approaches, likely starting with Africa and Asia. A regional approach could also ensure that identification systems are developed in an integrated, internationally (or regionally) interoperable manner to enable improved regional cooperation and cross-border integration. The experience of the European Community’s STORK and STORK 2.0 programs 22 informs us that cross-border applications are needed for effective regional integration, with (a) common standards for ID systems, and (b) interoperability frameworks. Developing a regional approach for Africa will require partnerships with the African Union, ECOWAS, EAC, African Development Bank, UNICEF, and Smart Africa organizations, among others, including extensive in-country consultations. The ID4D group will reach out to these regional bodies, organizations/think tanks, UN agencies and the private sector associations (e.g. GSMA, SIA, ESTI). ID4D could play a convening role, working with all parties and stakeholders involved, to develop an integration approach of existing global standards. Specifically, if adopted, the standards will have to be piloted at the sub-regional level, starting with the development of detailed and sequenced roadmap of actions/interventions needed for these standards to be adopted in EAC countries (Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda), and within ECOWAS and Pacific Islands. 6. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Countries can measure their progress by assessing outcomes related to coverage, integration, and cost among others. Robust ongoing monitoring and evaluation processes could be built into the design of ID4D projects. Below are possible indicators to use (when relevant) for monitoring and evaluation: A. Coverage and Growth: Measures coverage of the country’s population and is important for assessing inclusion of remote populations.  Population Coverage (%)  Number of Unique Users  % of Births Registered in a Given Year  % of Registered Births in which Birth Certificate was Issued B. Level of Integration: Measures the number of services using the identification system  Number of Unique Services Provided  Number of Registries Integrated C. Cost Benefits: Measures ongoing savings, such as ability to eliminate excess payments and avoid leakages  Cost of operations saved by government to date 22 For more information about the Secure idenTity acrOss boRders linked (STORK) 2.0 initiative, see the European Community’s STORK 2.0 website: https://www.eid-stork2.eu/. 20 D. Integration Performance: Provides key performance indicators for the system’s technical performance  Average transaction volume (per day)  Average response time (per transaction) In addition, rigorous impact evaluation of the ID4D agenda on development outcomes will allow all stakeholders to ascertain a complete results chain. The ID4D agenda has the transformational potential to serve as a key enabler of some of the most pressing development challenges today. With the convergence of a better understanding of the role of identification systems, together with significant advances and ubiquity of many new technologies, there are unprecedented opportunities for the WBG and the broader development community to support the strengthening of identification systems that will enable the access to services and rights for all. The WBG calls on key stakeholders and partners to join in a discussion on how to best embrace broad-based ID4D systems as a path to growth; improve delivery of basic services (including health care, education, financial inclusion, and social safety net payments); and better governance. Our hope is that the post2015 development agenda will result in concerted action and concrete steps toward a shared goal. 21 ANNEX 1: AGREED TERMINOLOGY A. Terminology: For purposes of the ID4D initiative, identity can be legal or functional, depending on the purpose of use and issuance, and support to develop identification systems can be tailored in accordance with country specific practices and needs. Generally, (there are some exceptions e.g. Aadhaar) identification systems can be classified according to the following definitions23:  Legal Registers - carry out birth registration or civil identification for the purpose of establishing legal identity. Proof of legal identity consists of official, government issued and recognized identity documents that include basic information attesting to the holder’s identity, age, status and/or legal relationships  Functional Register - are created in response to a demand for a particular service or transaction, and may issue identity tokens such as voter IDs, health and insurance records, bank cards, etc. 23 Sources: Vanderabeele, C and Lao, C, 2007. Legal Identity for inclusive Development. ADB. Harbitz, M. and Kentala, K., 2015. Dictionary for Civil Registration and Identification. IDB; Gelb, A. and Diofasi, A. 2015. Scoping Paper on Identification and Development. Center for Global Development. IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS Civil Register (issue certificates) Social Security (issue social security cards) Civil Identification Agency (issue national ID cards) Voter Rolls (issue voter cards) Cash Transfer Programs (may or may not issue a beneficiary card) Driver’s License Agency Passport issuing agency Aadhaar Tax Payer DB Issue some form of document Does not necessarily issue any form of document Platform to facilitate access to service delivery LEGAL REGISTERS FUNCTIONAL REGISTERS 22 These may be commonly accepted for broader identification purposes, but may not always bestow legal identity. The Indian Aadhaar is special type of platform formed on the basis of biometrics, name and address of individuals enrolled, rather than records from the civil register. It functions as a platform to facilitate access to delivery of services, with the potential to be used to create both a legal and/or a functional register. 23 ANNEX 2: COUNTRY EXAMPLES The ID4D initiative has identified a number of developing countries for possible support. The following points were considered:  WB country team interest/support/client demand/interest/commitment  Focus on current activities to demonstrate initial results within a 12- to 24-month timeframe  Readiness to implement CRVS actions (75 countries already identified by HNP)  Opportunities to support the development of integrated digital solutions  Institutional and legal arrangements (readiness to implement ID4D projects)  WBG’s comparative advantage In addition, priority under the financial inclusion initiative (25 countries identified by F&M), countryspecific criteria such as high extreme poverty rates, relatively large population, low birth registration rates, inadequate public financial management systems, and low level of integration of government systems with ID enabled services, were considered. While the WBG will support all low- and middleincome countries, there will be a particular emphasis on the poorest countries. Pakistan: Building Equality for Women on a Foundation of Identity To date, over 96 million Pakistanis, both in the country and abroad have received their biometric computerized national identity cards (CNIC). This CNIC is a prerequisite for opening a bank account, receiving a mobile SIM card, securing a passport and driver’s license, and other social and economic services. However, it was the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP), a cash transfer social safety net, launched in 2008 by the government with financial and technical assistance from the World Bank, that caused a spike in CNIC enrolment among the poorest segments of the population, women in particular. The reason was two-fold: the cash transfers could be given only to the female head of the eligible household and, further, possession of a CNIC was a prerequisite for enrolment in BISP. This was a deliberate move by the government to empower women and provide them with legal identification. Within four years of the launch of BISP, there was an overall increase of 72 percent in issuance of CNICs to the adult population in the country and a 94 percent increase in women enrollment. By 2012, 40 million women in Pakistan possessed CNICs. The role of CNICs in empowering Pakistani women cannot be underestimated. The BISP Impact Evaluation Surveys conducted by Oxford Policy Management in 2011 and 2013 reported that women with CNICs felt a stronger sense of identity than they ever had before. They were eager to vote and know their rights as citizens of their country. Within their families, they were given more respect, which increased their self-confidence and emboldened them to share their opinion on household matters. Recipients of the BISP cash transfer said they felt financially empowered for the first time in their lives. Evaluation results showed that 64 percent of female beneficiaries controlled how the cash transfer was spent. Others said that they were consulted on how the money should be spent. By and large, the women spent the cash transfer on nutrition and health. They also made greater use of reproductive health services. Evaluation also showed that BISP beneficiaries were more likely than non-beneficiaries to report that they would vote. 24 Bangladesh: Running on an IDEA In 2007-2008, the Government of Bangladesh embarked on a nationwide drive to update its electorate roll. Before long, the electorate roll, maintained by the Election Commission of Bangladesh (ECB), contained biographic and some biometric information on 85 million Bangladeshis. Seeing the potential in a database of this size and quality, the government decided to make it the foundation of a national identification system and issued national identification (ID) cards to all enrolled in this database. But, the government still wanted a true digital identification system that would be a foolproof and transparent way to deliver services to the population. Partnering with the World Bank in 2011, the government launched IDEA—the Identification System for Enhancing Access to Services project. Through IDEA, a digital national identification system complete with a unique identifying number (UIN) and a biometrics-based smart ID card for every citizen, was established. And, by the close of 2017, 100 million Bangladeshis should be in possession of smart national identification (NID) cards which will replace the present NID laminated paper-based cards. Unlike paper-based cards which can be forged or replicated, smart cards protect users and agencies from fraud, leakages and waste to a considerable extent. Each smart ID card contains a 10-digit UIN and comes with 25 different security features incorporated in three layers to prevent forgery; personal information is engraved by laser to protect from replication by normal printers; biometrics (10 fingerprints) and photograph are stored inside the chip digitally; and the data is stored in compliance with international standards. With support from IDEA, the NID database has been expanding both its coverage and scope of use. Enrollment has touched 100 million and includes almost an equal number of women as men. Further, the database has expanded to include the 15-18 age group; by the end of 2015, 1.9 million citizens in this age range had been enrolled. To date, 33 agencies (both from the public and private sector) have signed on to use the ID authentication service. For instance, the NID database is used by: the National Board of Revenue to verify the identity of applicants registering for electronic income tax identification numbers; the Bangladesh Bank to verify data provided to the Credit Information Bureau and the Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit (BFIU); the Department of Immigration and Passports to verify the identity of applicants for national passports and; all six mobile operators in Bangladesh to biometrically authenticate their user base. 25 Guinea: Piloting a Digital Identification System Guinea was declared free from Ebola by the World Health Organization in December 2015. During the crisis, the World Bank Group mobilized US$1.62 billion in financing to respond to the Ebola health crisis and aid recovery efforts in affected countries. Through the Ebola Recovery and Reconstruction Trust Fund, financial aid was made available to countries to help pay for essential health care, health workers and health infrastructure. Social safety nets in affected countries were scaled up to help governments and their populations cope with the financial fallout of the Ebola crisis. With the end of the Ebola crisis, the focus has shifted to recovery and making communities resilient and capable of rebounding from the social and economic toll of Ebola. In this context, because a robust identification system can help people receive essential services such as health care and access financial services such as loans, the Government of Guinea has requested World Bank support in designing and implementing a biometric digital identification (ID) system After conducting an assessment in the country, the World Bank has decided to pilot a digital ID system using an existing World Bank cash transfer program which helps Guineans pay for essentials such as food and education. The digital ID pilot will cover four rural communities which suffer from high rates of school dropout and malnutrition and are beneficiaries of the cash transfer. Covering 7,000 households, the program has an existing database of approximately 42,000 people. A digital ID system will help the program accurately identify and authenticate beneficiaries as well as make timely payments. Under the pilot, beneficiaries will enroll in a biometric database that will include their fingerprints and iris scans. The head of each beneficiary household will be issued an ID card with a unique ID number. These ID cards must be presented by the head of the household at the time of payment transfer. Once the digital ID system authenticates the beneficiary, the payment will be made. Additional financing of US$17 million from the Ebola Recovery and Reconstruction Trust Fund established by the World Bank Group has been earmarked for earmarked for the project. 26 ANNEX 3: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Given the many potential applications spanning different sectors and involving both public and private entities, implementing the ID4D agenda requires a strong dialogue among stakeholders, advocacy and awareness raising, and selecting the most effective entry points. The multisectoral applications of identification require systematic engagement – across ministries and agencies, across public and private sector, and including citizens and civil society organizations – to determine the most appropriate design feature for the national identification system. Some dimensions which need to be considered, although not exhaustive, include: A. Strategic Pathway: When designing an identification architecture, there are a number of considerations based on country context (needs, state of civil registration system, budget, timeline, political will). In particular, there could be trade-offs such as the focus on foundational to functional or functional to foundational, along with a discussion of an integrated vs modular approach. The table below from the Digital Identity toolkit provides a broad summary of the choices, with further details available in the toolkit. 27 B. Integrated vs Modular:  Multipurpose national ID programs offer some particular benefits. Through the use of a unique ID number, records can be integrated across a wide range of data registers and applications to provide a “client-centered” perspective. Countries that have integrated their ID systems with their functional registries can more easily track benefits accessed by each user and can minimize benefits leakage (in forms such as ghost payroll payments or duplicated subsidy payments). In addition, an integrated digital ID can cut costs for both citizens and government by enabling secure remote transactions. 24 Estonia is an example of a country that has integrated its foundational systems (National Population Register and national ID system) to functional applications using ‘X-Road’ middleware. As a result, Estonian citizens can access a number of economic, social and political services using their national e-ID card, which acts as their primary form of identification25 .  At the same time, there are some concerns that integrated ID programs can strengthen the coercive power of the state, such as by facilitating surveillance. Some countries have rejected proposals to establish such programs, with Australia and the United Kingdom being prominent examples. In the United States, concerns over citizen rights and privacy have stalled initiatives toward a national ID even as rising identity theft and concerns over border control and security place pressure on existing systems. 26 The Philippines is another example of a country that has maintained a diverse array of identity programs and credentials, partly because of concern over inadequate legal protections for the privacy of individuals’ data. The quality of these identifiers may vary, making it more difficult to integrate information across programs. In addition to these concerns, some countries may face particularly urgent needs that argue for a modular approach toward developing an ID system, for instance, in Liberia, the main immediate impulse was the need to rationalize the civil service and eliminate “ghost workers.” In Djibouti, a particular concern was to enable a functioning system of social protection. The diagram below provides one possible model (not meant to be prescriptive) of an integrated approach to link existing functional registries to the legal registries (civil registry and civil identification). 24 For estimates of the potential savings in costs and time from shifting to e-transactions, see Secure Identity Alliance 2013. 25 Identification for Development Integration Approach, World Bank 2015. 26 Cost has also been a factor in some OECD countries, with some surprisingly high estimates. 28 C. Institutional Arrangements: The most appropriate governance structure, including which ministry or agency champions the effort, is a critical design feature. The key coordinating agency or ministry needs the capacity, legal backing and political will to serve as an effective champion and implementer. Several options are summarized in the table below and further details available in the toolkit. Other institutional roles critical to an identification system include: enrolment agencies, central repository, ID card issuing body (optional), identity service providers, and credential and certificate authorities. How the roles are designed under a broader identification system and distributed across agencies are important. 29 D. Technology: the strategy to deploy technology needs to consider a range of dimensions, including cost, capacity, interoperability, usage, security, and long term viability. A digital identity includes the following technology-based solutions which could be considered:  Biometrics: technology to uniquely identify or authenticate an individual by electronically capturing a face photo, fingerprints, iris, among others.  Electronic database: to electronically store identity data and make it available for online or mobile usage.  Electronic credentials: such as smartcards or mobile phones to electronically authenticate the identity of a person for in-person, online, mobile or offline services.  Mobile, online and offline applications: digital applications when linked with eID, offer new products and services to consumers, available in person, online, offline or via mobile. In addition, design features such as an open architecture platform that protects against lock-in due to specific vendor or technology is critical to avoid dependency on incumbent or legacy systems during renewal. The ideal design allows many vendors, products, solutions and technologies to compete on features, performance, and price. Further details are available in the Toolkit. E. Intentionality of Inclusion: Lessons also include the importance of working with civil society organizations and deploying new approaches to reach people frequently excluded for example lower castes, women, disabled and indigenous peoples. In Pakistan, for example, to increase female enrolment, the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) established 15 women-only registration centers staffed fully by women. The agency also penetrated remote areas with mobile vans, motorcycle registration units, and even hikers, mountaineers into mountain areas with man-pack units. NADRA also worked with community leaders to enroll minorities such as the transgender communities.27 The design elements discussed above are not exhaustive and will vary based on country context and needs. 27 Technology in the Service of Development: The NADRA Story by Tariq Malik, Center for Global Development, Nov 2014 30 REFERENCES Dunning, C., A. Gelb, and S. Raghavan. 2014. “Birth Registration, Legal Identity, and the Post-2015 Agenda.” Policy Paper 46, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC. Gelb, Alan, and Julia Clark. 2013. “Identification for Development: The Biometrics Revolution.” Working Paper 315, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC. http://www.cgdev.org/publication/identification-development-biometrics-revolution-workingpaper-315. Gelb, Alan, and Sneha Raghavan. Forthcoming. “The Spread of National Identification Programs.” Unpublished working paper, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC. 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