||Started eponymous discount brokerage firm in two-room office 1971. Public 1987. Deregulation of brokerage commissions, online investing craze brought the masses. Assets under management: $1.4 trillion. Stock up 20% in last 12 months despite tumultuous markets. This year stepped down as chief exec, remains chairman. Company launched online trading community in 2008; first social network offered by major brokerage firm.