Ernest Mario has been a Director of Boston Scientific since 2001 and is currently the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Capnia, Inc. From 2003 to July 2007, Dr. Mario was Chairman of Reliant Pharmaceuticals. From 2003 to 2006, he was also the chief executive officer of Reliant Pharmaceuticals. Prior to joining Reliant Pharmaceuticals in April 2003, he was the Chairman of IntraBiotics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from April 2002 to April 2003. Dr. Mario also served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Apothogen, Inc., a pharmaceutical company, from January 2002 to April 2002 when Apothogen was acquired by IntraBiotics. Dr. Mario served as the Chief Executive of Glaxo Holdings plc from 1989 until March 1993 and as Deputy Chairman and Chief Executive from January 1992 until March 1993. From 1993 to 1997, Dr. Mario served as Co-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of ALZA Corporation, a research-based pharmaceutical company with leading drug-delivery technologies, and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer from 1997 to 2001. Dr. Mario presently serves on the boards of directors of Maxygen, Inc., Pharmaceutical Product Development,- Inc., Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc. and Celgene Corporation. He was a Trustee of Duke University from 1988 to June 2007 and in July 2007 he retired as Chairman of the Board of the Duke University Health System which he chaired from its inception in 1996. He is a past Chairman of the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education and serves as an advisor to the pharmacy schools at the University of Maryland, the University of Rhode Island and The Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Dr. Mario holds a B.S. in Pharmacy from Rutgers, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in Physical Sciences from the University of Rhode Island.