Schapiro is vice chair of the Promontory Advisory Board, part of the Promontory Financial Group since 2014. She served as chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission from 2009 until she stepped down in December 2012. She had been CEO of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) from 2007 through 2008. She joined FINRA in 1996. Prior to her 2009 SEC appointment, Schapiro was a director and chair of the audit committee at Duke Energy, and was lead director and chair of the nominating and governance committee at Kraft Foods. Schapiro currently serves on the boards of CVS Health Corporation and The London Stock Exchange Group. Schapiro was picked for the top post at the SEC in late 2008. Ms. Schapiro was formerly Executive Officer of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). FINRA was created through the merger of the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (NASD) and the member regulation functions of NYSE Regulation. FINRA is the world's largest private sector regulator of securities markets. Prior to the creation of FINRA, Ms. Schapiro was the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of NASD, having previously held the position of Vice Chairman of NASD and President of the Regulatory Policy and Oversight Division since 2001, and President of NASD Regulation, Inc. since 1996. Prior to joining NASD, she was chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and a Commissioner of the SEC. Ms. Schapiro serves on the board of Duke Energy Corporation. She is a Trustee of Franklin and Marshall College.