Joan E. Spero is president of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. She is a member of IBM's Audit Committee. Ms. Spero served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations for Economic and Social Affairs from 1980 to 1981. From 1981 to 1993 she held several positions with American Express Company, the last being executive vice president, corporate affairs and communications. From 1993 to 1996 Ms. Spero served as U.S. Undersecretary of State for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs, and she assumed her current position with the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 1997. She is a director of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the International Advisory Board of Toyota Motors and a trustee of Columbia University and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. Ms. Spero became an IBM director in 2004.