Howard S. Jonas founded IDT in August 1990, and has served as Chairman of the Board of Directors since its inception. Mr. Jonas served as Chief Executive Officer of the Company from December 1991 until July 2001, as President of the Company from December 1991 through September 1996, and as Treasurer of the Company from inception through 2002. Mr. Jonas has also served as the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of IDT Telecom from December 1999 to April 2008, as Co-Chairman since April 2008, and as a director of IDT Capital since September 2004. Mr. Jonas served as Co-Chairman of the Board of Directors of IDT Entertainment from November 2004 until August 2006. Since August 2006, Mr. Jonas has been a director of Starz Media Holdings, LLC, Starz Media, LLC and Starz Foreign Holdings, LLC, each of which is a subsidiary of Liberty Media Corporation. In addition, Mr. Jonas has been a director of IDT Energy since June 2007 and a director of American Shale Oil Corporation since January 2008. Mr. Jonas is also the founder and has been President of Jonas Publishing since its inception in 1979. Mr. Jonas was the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Net2Phone from October 2001 to October 2004, the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of Net2Phone from October 2004 to June 2006, and has served as the Chairman of Net2Phone since June 2006. Mr. Jonas received a B.A. in Economics from Harvard University.