James Fruchterman is an electrical engineer-turned-entrepreneur who adapts cutting-edge technologies into affordable devices for the visually impaired and others underserved by traditional commerce. As a student, Fruchterman designed a reading machine for the blind using optical-character-recognition technology originally intended for military defense purposes. James Fruchterman received a B.S. (1980) in engineering and an M.S. (1980) in applied physics from the California Institute of Technology and pursued doctoral studies at Stanford University (1980-1981). Prior to founding Benetech, where he serves as president, CEO, and chairman, he was president, CEO, and chairman of Arkenstone, Inc. (1989-2000) and co-founder and vice president of Calera Recognition Systems, Inc. (1982-1989). Fruchterman also served as co-founder and CFO of RAF Technology, Inc. (1989-2004).